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  • After a new round of testing and research, we still think Mullvad and IVPN are the best options. We’ve updated this guide throughout with new information.

November 11, 2021

As more people’s work and personal lives go digital, online privacy and security become increasingly important. Although a virtual private network, or VPN, is not a complete answer for protecting your online privacy, it can be a useful part of your security toolkit. However, the VPN industry is riddled with false promises and shady businesses. After sorting through dozens of VPNs and reviewing four security audits, we think the best option for most people is Mullvad, an open-source VPN that is not only trustworthy and transparent but also fast and reliable.

Mullvad collects minimal user data and engages in comprehensive and transparent privacy practices. It meets our security standards with a recent, publicly available third-party security audit. Though anonymity guarantees are nearly impossible for any company to make, we like that Mullvad allows you to pay in cash simply by using an account number it generates (you can also pay with more common payment types, including credit card and PayPal). Mullvad offers the speedy WireGuard protocol, which is lightweight and quick compared with IPsec and OpenVPN, the previous tunneling protocols. Mullvad’s desktop and recuva crack getintopc - Activators Patch apps make setup simple on a variety of devices even if you have little technical knowledge, and the service’s kill switch helps protect your privacy by automatically disconnecting your device if the VPN connection fails. Although Mullvad doesn’t offer a free trial, it does have a money-back guarantee. You can also set up many types of routers to connect with Mullvad’s servers, and you can use your Mullvad account on up to five devices at once.

If you plan to use six or seven devices at once, or if your speeds with Mullvad aren’t as good as what we saw in our tests, IVPN is just as transparent and trustworthy. IVPN also gives you some extras that Mullvad lacks, such as the ability to let it choose the fastest server for you or to block Facebook and Google with its Hardcore Mode feature. Depending on how many devices you need to connect, IVPN can be cheaper or more expensive than Mullvad. IVPN’s less expensive option allows only two devices compared with Mullvad’s five, and its more expensive premium plan allows seven. IVPN’s premium plan includes two features the basic plan doesn’t: port forwarding and multihop (though most people don’t need either). While IVPN doesn’t offer a free trial, it does include a 30-day money-back guarantee. Like Mullvad, Audials tunebite 2019 crack - Free Activators offers instructions on how to set up many types of routers to connect with its servers, as well as instructions on using it with network-attached storage.

Why you should trust us

We scoured articles, white papers, customer reviews, security audit reports, and forums to compile the pros and cons of various VPN services, different VPN protocols and encryption technologies, and signals indicating transparency, trustworthiness, and security.

We interviewed Electronic Frontier Foundation director of cybersecurity Eva Galperin about limitations of VPNs and tips for selecting the appropriate VPN based on individual circumstances. We spoke with Trail of Bits co-founder and CEO Dan Guido about the security challenges inherent in VPNs and the limitations of security audits and reports. We got answers from Joseph Jerome, then the policy counsel for the Center for Democracy & Technology’s privacy and data project, about how accountable VPNs were for their business models, privacy practices, security protocols, and protections, and how that related to trustworthiness. We discussed what to look for—and avoid—in VPNs with security researcher Kenneth White, co-director of the Open Crypto Audit Project, and with cryptographer and Johns Hopkins University professor Matthew Green. We also touched base with blockchain privacy expert and Clovyr co-founder Amber Baldet to discuss the privacy advantages and pitfalls to consider when paying for a VPN with cryptocurrency.

We interviewed the leadership of three top-performing VPN services about their operational security and internal standards, participating in phone calls with TunnelBear CEO and co-founder Ryan Dochuk and IVPN CEO Nick Pestell, and exchanging emails with Mullvad CEO Jan Jonsson.

As a digital security trainer at Freedom of the Press Foundation (FPF), David Huerta has consulted and trained media makers in hundreds of newsrooms, including The New York Times, on how to make the best use of privacy-enhancing technology in journalistic work. Since the beginning of his time at FPF in 2017, he has shown journalists how to use encryption tools to protect the identity of their sources, how to address privacy concerns related to having a highly public presence online, and how to circumvent national firewalls when reporting from abroad. VPNs have been a recurring topic; he has helped demystify how they work, as well as how to pick a VPN based on its technology and policy features.

Yael Grauer did the initial reporting for this guide and wrote Wirecutter’s previous recommendations in the summer of 2020. She has written about privacy and security for Wired, Vice, BreakerMag, The Intercept, Slate/Future Tense, and Ars Technica, and she now covers the category for Consumer Reports. She collaborated with the Electronics Frontier Foundation on its Street-Level Surveillance project and wrote curricula for TrollBusters, a just-in-time rescue service for women writers and journalists who are experiencing online harassment. She has also co-organized events, taught workshops, and spoken on panels about digital security and source protection.

This guide builds on work by Wirecutter editor Mark Smirniotis, including feedback from the information security team at The New York Times, which at the time included Runa Sandvik, Bill McKinley, David Templeton, James Pettit, and Neena Kapur. They all provided feedback on a wide range of issues, from technical concerns to provider transparency.

Who this is for

For this guide we focused on virtual private networks, or VPNs, as an option for people who are hoping to add a layer of privacy or security to their web browsing. Using a VPN can stop your computer or mobile device from revealing your IP address to websites, services, and the rest of the internet when you connect. One reason to protect your IP address is that it can give away your location. Anyone can plug in an IP address at various websites to find your rough location, usually your city, state, and country. Although some IP addresses are only loosely connected to a specific geographic location, those associated with Wi-Fi hotspots are much more precise. Commercial outfits such as Skyhook have used hotspot scanning and app partners to amass large databases correlating IP addresses with hotspot locations, and companies can turn to these services to determine your exact location.

VPNs work by routing your web traffic through a secure, encrypted connection to the VPN’s server so that those other parties see the VPN’s IP address, not the one connected to your home or office, or to the coffee shop, airport, or hotel you happen to be in. Using a VPN can also stop your internet service provider from recording your online activities; in 2017, President Donald Trump signed a law repealing internet privacy rules passed by the FCC, allowing ISPs to record all of your traffic, insert ads, track you in a variety of ways, and sell that data to third parties. Although the VPN provider can see what you’re doing, your traffic mixes with that of other people using the same VPN. See our article “What Is a VPN and What Can (and Can’t) It Do?” for more information on how VPNs work and whether you need one.

And it’s not just about ISP behavior: Your IP address is typically recorded by the websites you visit and is usually attached in emails you send, becoming exposed to your email’s recipient. Even loading images embedded in emails you receive can reveal your IP address to wherever the images are loading from.

IP addresses can pinpoint your places of work, too. For example, a court document indicates that a New York Times reporter accidentally tipped off a company to a major investigation by visiting its website too often. You don’t have to be a journalist to sometimes want to keep your place of business private from the site you’re visiting.

Illustration: Sarah MacReading

Illustration: Sarah MacReading

But standard VPN services may not be enough in some instances. Human-rights activists, journalists, people hoping to use VPNs in oppressive regimes, or people who are likely to be individually targeted by nation-state actors may need to take steps beyond using a commercial VPN; in these cases, it’s worthwhile to consult a digital-security specialist such as Access Now before signing up for one of our picks.


One of the main reasons people want to use VPNs is to geoshift: making a website or web-based service such as Netflix think that you’re connecting from, say, the United States instead of Germany to access videos or other content with geographic restrictions. But the biggest sites often block connections from VPNs, making geoshifting like this unreliable. We tested each of our candidates for the ability to f.lux Activaton Code - Crack Key For U content in different countries—and based on the results, we don’t recommend that people expect them to work for that purpose.

Trusting a VPN

Because VPNs see all of the traffic you are hoping to protect, the most important quality of a good VPN is trustworthiness, while the second most important is security. Unfortunately, these are also the most difficult qualities to ascertain. In recent years, VPNs have begun hiring independent firms to conduct security audits to back up their security or privacy claims and have been sharing the results publicly.

All of your internet activity will flow through the servers of the company whose VPN you use, so you’ll need to trust it more than you trust the network you’re hoping to secure, whether that’s airport Wi-Fi, a hotel internet connection, your corporate IT network, or your home ISP. “That last mile between you and your ISP is extremely treacherous,” said Dan Guido, CEO of Trail of Bits. In the past, executives traveling overseas have been attacked with malware served through unsecured hotel Wi-Fi, and ISPs have hijacked and rerouted customer search queries, injected targeted ads based on browsing history, and injected supercookies to track mobile customers. In-flight broadband providers have been caught issuing fake HTTPS certificates.

The FTC announced in 2019 that it was seeking information about different broadband providers’ privacy practices. “There is this widespread suspicion that broadband providers aren’t being forthright with how they use your data,” Guido said. A look through broadband providers’ terms of service reveals that they typically include a lot of privacy opt-outs for information collected by default and being provided to third parties.

So there are reasons to trust some VPN providers over some ISPs, or to seek protection in the form of a VPN.

But not all VPNs are an improvement, as more than a few VPN providers have been caught lying about their policies in the past or sharing data with third parties, and many VPN services have had poor configurations that leaked the very data they were being paid to secure. “A lot of times VPNs that promise you privacy and security don’t deliver because they’re lying,” said Eva Galperin, director of cybersecurity at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. “A lot of VPNs that say, ‘We will protect your privacy, we won’t log, we won’t comply with a subpoena,’ that kind of thing, turn out to be full of lies. That is a very serious problem because it’s really hard to evaluate for.”

Your internet activity will flow through the servers of the company whose VPN you use, so you’ll need to trust it more than you trust the network you’re hoping to secure.

In fact, there are so many stories about VPNs not being true to their claims that we can list only a sample:

  • In 2016, one study (PDF) found a mix of VPNs that had embedded third-party tracking and insecure implementations. Another project found that 90% of the VPNs it tested used insecure or outdated encryption.
  • In May 2019, the director of the US Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency warned that foreign adversaries were interested in exploiting VPN services (PDF).
  • In early 2019, more than half of the top 20 free VPNs in the App Store and the Google Play store were owned by or based in China, a country where VPN services are banned.
  • There have been multiple instances of individual VPNs being caught or accused with evidence of violating their own privacy policies or sharing customer data, including claims against EarthVPN, Facebook’s Onavo, HideMyAss, Hola VPN, Hotspot Shield (PDF), IPVanish, and PureVPN.

On the other side, there are some VPNs whose no-logging cases have been proven in court:

Knowing who is behind your VPN is a big step toward trusting them. Some VPNs offer great service or pricing but little to no insight into who exactly is handling them. We considered feedback from security experts, including the information security team at The New York Times, about whether you could trust even the most appealing VPN if the company wasn’t willing to disclose who stood behind it. We decided we’d rather give up other positives—such as faster speed or extra convenience features—if it meant knowing who led or owned the company providing our connections. Considering the explosion of companies offering VPN services and the trivial nature Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U setting one up as a scam, having a public-facing leadership team—especially one with a long history of actively fighting for online privacy and security—is the most concrete way a company can build trust.

Even with visibility into a company’s leadership, there are more factors to consider when you’re evaluating that leadership’s history. In recent years, a number of VPN companies including CyberGhost, ExpressVPN, PIA, and Zenmate VPN have been bought by Kape Technologies, formerly known as Crossrider. The company previously created invasive ad programs that are largely considered potentially unwanted programs (PUPs), with many search results for “Crossrider” being instructions on how to remove it.

Kape was co-founded by Koby Menachemi, a former developer at Israel’s Unit 8200, a rough equivalent to the United States’s National Security Agency. Recent reports also revealed that ExpressVPN’s CIO, Dan Gericke, was involved with Project Raven, a group of hackers working at the behest of the United Arab Emirates to target and surveil its critics, including a number of human-rights activists. We think the privacy promises of people with ties to an intelligence collection agency should be considered with some skepticism.

Another major factor we looked for: published security audits conducted by reputable third parties, which are much more common than they have been in the recent past.

Security audits aren’t perfect. Although independent companies evaluate a VPN provider’s technology as best they can, such audits are limited to a moment in time; there are no assurances that the VPN will have the same technology or security practices the next day. Additionally, the auditors themselves are limited by time and sometimes are contracted to look only at certain aspects of a VPN.

For this guide, we insisted that our VPN picks have published third-party security audits of their core product.

“They’re not going Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U be intimately familiar with the entire company. They’re not going to have time to look through every line of code. They’re given a set of constraints, usually a very small amount of time that they’d prefer is longer, and they don’t have any familiarity with any of the technology unhackme download - Activators Patch than day one and they need to figure it all out,” said Trail of Bits’s Dan Guido.

However, software companies and service providers that are willing to engage with third-party auditors to review their code and implementation—and make the results public—do send a signal of trust. For this guide, we insisted that our VPN picks have published third-party security audits of their core product—their server and back-end infrastructure, rather than just their apps and web-browser extensions. Although audits for apps and extensions are a nice supplement, apps and extensions can be independently dissected by any security researcher with a smartphone or web browser. Security researchers have no other legal way to evaluate a VPN company’s servers except by getting the company’s permission to look inside them. Infrastructure audits considering both the security of a VPN’s servers and its back-end code—not just the verification of a no-logging policy—were our baseline for third-party audits that we considered in our evaluation.

Some VPNs have had no-log audits conducted in order to show that they are living up to their privacy promises. As with security audits, there’s never a guarantee that practices in place during audits aren’t changed the next day, if compelled by a government, for example. And even if companies intend to stick to their FaceApp for Android Crack + Product Code Free Download, they may be inadvertently failing to secure the data they are entrusted with protecting. Although the move toward transparency with no-log audits is a positive one, competition makes it mandatory that such audits be paired with security audits that can help find vulnerabilities so that companies can patch or mitigate them.

If you penny-pinch on privacy and security services, you may end up without privacy or security.

Even if you know who’s behind your VPN, you shouldn’t trust a free one. A free service may make you and your data the product, so you should assume that any information it gathers on you—whether that’s an actual browsing history or demographics such as age or political affiliation—is being sold to or shared with someone.

If you penny-pinch on privacy and security services, you may end up without privacy or security. As Bill McKinley, head of the information security team for The New York Times, put it: “If I can spend more on organic bananas, I can spend more for confidence in a VPN provider.”

Some VPN reviewers focus on VPNs that are offshore, believing in the privacy benefits of these localities and trying to stay away from the so-called Fourteen Eyes countries—the 14 countries, including the United States, that actively share intelligence data gathered from internet monitoring. But depending on the location, that same lack of regulation can leave people unprotected against fraudulent marketing, which is a major trade-off. Joseph Jerome, policy counsel for the Center for Democracy & Technology at the time of our interview, told us that companies violating their own privacy policy or claims about logging would be “a textbook example of a deceptive practice under state and federal consumer protection laws,” and that in theory “the FTC could seek an injunction barring the deceptive practice as well as potentially getting restitution or other monetary relief.”

The Center for Democracy & Technology brought just such a complaint against one VPN provider in 2017, though no investigation was ever announced. Many privacy sites suggest finding a VPN service outside the prying eyes of US intelligence agencies and their allies, but FTC protections could be an argument for finding one in the US so that there’s a penalty if the service deceives its customers.

Limitations of VPNs

There are three common scenarios in which other parties would be able to quickly link your online habits. For one, if you sign in to a Google account from home without a VPN, Google has a log of your home IP address. Even if you turn on your browser’s private or Incognito mode and don’t log in, your “private” searches are also linked to your IP address, and then back to your Google account. If you then connect your VPN and sign in to your Google account just once, your “anonymous” VPN IP address is just as trivially linked back to your secret browsing history.

In fact, government requests for data have included asking ISPs for accounts linked to other accounts—if Google knows which VPN you use and that there are multiple accounts on your computer, it knows that your accounts are linked, as does anybody else it shares that data with.

Even if you were to practice perfect separation, VPNs can’t protect against browser cookies and browser fingerprinting techniques that can track you regardless of logins and IP addresses.

People in the US who believe that offshore VPNs will protect their identities in the case of criminal activity will be disappointed to learn that the US government actually has mutual legal assistance treaties with dozens of countries throughout the world.

How we picked

To narrow down the list of VPN providers we would consider, we looked at VPNs listed in reviews from sources such as CNET, PCMag, and The Verge, as well as recommendations from the nonprofit Freedom of the Press Foundation (where current guide author David Huerta is a digital security trainer) and the security firm Bishop Fox. We also looked at VPNs that had answered questions on the Center for Democracy & Technology’s Signals of Trustworthy VPNs survey. We combined these results with customer experiences and tips on the r/VPN subreddit, as well as reviews in the App Store and Google Play store. We piled this research on top of our work from previous years, which looked at sites such as vpnMentor and TorrentFreak and technology-focused websites like Lifehacker and Ars Technica, as well as those services that were simply on our staff’s personal radars.

In 2019, we settled on 52 VPNs that were repeatedly recommended or at least so highly visible that you’re likely to encounter them when shopping for a VPN provider. In 2020, we added four, and then in 2021 we considered one more. From there, we dug into the details on how each VPN handled issues from technology to subscriptions, as well as the steps they’ve taken to improve their transparency and security posture.

Trust and transparency

The minimum: recent, published back-end security audits by a reputable third-party firm; public-facing leadership

The best: comprehensive, published white-box (aka open-box) security audits by a reputable third-party firm conducted annually; transparency reports; a bug-bounty program or a coordinated vulnerability-disclosure program

We thoroughly reviewed all audits, paying close attention to how comprehensive they were and what they included. We also factored in which companies had public-facing leadership or ownership. We looked for audits by third-party firms, prioritizing those that assessed the overall security of a VPN provider.

Privacy and terms-of-service policies

The minimum: marketing copy consistent with the privacy policy and the terms of service

The best: easy-to-read policies; companies located in countries with strong consumer protections; no third-party trackers on the website

The VPNs we chose said they logged minimal information. We looked for clear and easy-to-read terms-of-service and privacy policies and checked to confirm that they were consistent with the site’s marketing copy. We asked companies about their internal security and privacy standards, and how they would respond to requests for information, in order to gauge the trustworthiness of their statements on logging. Although third-party trackers for ads, analytics, and social media are the norm for many websites, trackers ultimately do what they say they will: track what you’re up to on a website. For a VPN service, this can feel somewhat contradictory to the larger promises made in website copy (probably written by the same marketing team making use of these trackers).

Trial or refund policy

The minimum: a free version (or trial) or a money-back guarantee

The best: a free version (or trial) and a money-back guarantee

Despite our extensive testing, we know that VPNs work differently in different locations and on different computers and networks. A trial or a free version of a VPN can allow you to test out several of them risk-free to see if any are a better fit for your specific circumstance. In lieu of a free trial or tier, we recommend trying out a new VPN for a month before committing to buying it for a full year.

Server network

The minimum: at least 75 server locations in at least 20 countries

The best: more than 1,000 servers

The more servers a network has at each of its locations, the more likely you are to have a speedy connection. And a VPN with a wide variety of server locations can help you geoshift your location without losing connectivity or allow you to log on to a less-congested part of the world. However, VPNs tend to be slower at peak times even on the most robust networks due to limited bandwidth in and out of an area.

Security and technology

The minimum: OpenVPN with SHA-256 authentication; RSA-2048 or better handshake; AES-256-GCM or AES-256-CBC data encryption

The best: RSA-4096, Curve25519, P-256, P-384, or P-521

We built our requirements based on interviews with experts and recommendations (PDF) put out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. All the trust in the world won’t help a VPN provider keep your browsing information private if it’s not secure. We recommend the open-source WireGuard protocol, a new lightweight protocol that is gaining prominence. It now has Windows and macOS support and is integrated into the Linux kernel, which required additional security review. If the VPN you choose doesn’t offer WireGuard, we recommend using the OpenVPN protocol due to security flaws and disadvantages in the PPTP and IPsec protocols.

Although AES 128-bit encryption is fine for most purposes, we prefer services that default to the more-secure 256-bit encryption and still offer good performance. And while RSA-2048 is sufficient for now, we prefer the future-proof RSA-4096 as our top standard.

Kill switch

The minimum: a kill switch that’s effective and that you can activate with one click

The best: customizable rules allowing you to activate a kill switch on startup or on specific networks

When a VPN “kill switch” is turned on, the VPN software is supposed to shut off all network traffic in and out of your computer or mobile device if the encrypted connection fails. Without a kill switch, if your Wi-Fi drops or another connectivity issue occurs, your VPN stops securing the connection. In some cases, VPN software doesn’t even alert you that it’s no longer protecting your traffic, thereby wiping out all of the benefits of your using it in the first place.

We considered kill switches to be mandatory, but people who find that they can’t log on to their home Wi-Fi, for example, may simply turn off their VPN out of frustration. That’s why we also looked for apps that allow you to easily set your own rules about when the kill switch should activate and when it shouldn’t, in order to customize the experience.

Login screens from the VPN services that we tested to find the best, overlapping each other on a dark yellow background.


The minimum: native apps for Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS (including iPadOS)

The best: additional operating systems, routers, and smart TVs

We consider native apps for Windows and Mac a necessity because they’re far easier to use than open-source or third-party VPN apps. Native apps for iOS and Android are a requirement because although it’s possible to manually configure your phone to use a VPN, it’s not exactly a user-friendly or easy process.

Number of connections

The minimum: two simultaneous connections

The best: five or more simultaneous connections

Though the majority of VPN providers allow you to install their software on as many devices as you’d like, most of them limit simultaneous connections. A two-connection limit is likely sufficient for most individuals, but five or more connections offer flexibility for couples, families, or people with many devices.


The minimum: email support, with responses sent within 24 business hours; robust help section

The best: email, chat support during business hours, quick response to weekend tickets

If you can’t set up or reliably use your VPN, you won’t use it—thereby eliminating all of the benefits. An extensive help section on the website can resolve many problems. Although we consider online-chat support to be the gold standard, quick and clear responses to emails can be equally helpful.

Extra features

Some VPNs offer additional features that can be nice to have but weren’t crucial to our decision making:

  • Additional payment options: Cryptocurrency, cash, PayPal, Amazon Pay, bank wire, gift card balances, and even jars of honey are accepted for payment, but since a VPN doesn’t guarantee anonymity (see the section on limitations), we don’t think such an array of options is crucial for most people.
  • Stealth modes: A stealth mode helps circumvent networks that block VPNs by making your encrypted VPN traffic look like it’s some other type of data.
  • Custom ad blockers: Although this is a nice feature to have in a VPN, you can find a number of trustworthy and free browser extensions for this purpose.
  • Multihop connections: For added encryption and obfuscation, some VPNs can route your traffic through multiple servers. This is unnecessary for most people, though, and it can reduce speeds.
  • Warrant canaries: Many companies proudly display “warrant canaries” on their websites. These are digitally signed notices that say something to the effect of “We have never been served a warrant for traffic logs or turned over customer information.” Law enforcement can prohibit a company from discussing an investigation, but in theory it can’t compel a company to actively lie. So the theory goes that when the warrant canary dies—that is, the notice disappears from the website because it’s no longer truthful—so does privacy. The EFF supports this legal position, though it stopped tracking warrant canaries in 2016; other highly regarded companies and organizations think warrant canaries are helpful only for informing you after the damage has been done. Such notices may provide a nice sense of security, and they are important to some people, but we didn’t consider them essential.

How we tested

After going through the above criteria in 2021, we narrowed our initial list down to just four services that met our requirements: IVPN, Mullvad, Surfshark, and TunnelBear. We signed up for each one of those services and dug deeper into their policies, technology, and performance on a custom-built gaming PC, a MacBook Pro, an iPhone, and a Pixel phone.

Speed testing

Your browsing speed and latency while connected to a VPN depend on several factors, including the VPN server’s physical location—with a server located far away, your data takes longer to arrive—and the bandwidth of the VPN provider’s internet connection.

We tested each service using Ookla’s Speedtest on macOS for each VPN over Wi-Fi, selecting OpenVPN as the connection protocol but otherwise leaving the configuration as is. We recorded baseline download rates of nearly 230 megabits per second without a VPN active and checked our non-VPN speeds at random intervals to confirm that our local ISP wasn’t affecting the tests.

Ookla takes a “multi-threaded” approach to testing, using up to 16 streams. Multi-threaded testing, according to a 2016 white paper by OTI, has a higher tolerance for background packet losses and can obfuscate deficiencies in the network, so it tends to be more forgiving than other tests. Though other rating options like M-Lab’s Speed Test may be a better measure of real-world results, in our experience Ookla’s tests worked on every service and allowed us to get a true relative comparison. Plus, Ookla’s data has been cited by the FCC in publications including the agency’s first Consolidated Communications Marketplace Report (PDF), according to the company’s blog.

These two tests show how using a VPN, especially a distant server, will generally slow down your internet connection. We did this second speed test in Southern California with a VPN connection to a server in the United Kingdom. This screen recording has been sped up, so the connection time may be longer than depicted.

These two tests show how using a VPN, especially a distant server, will generally slow down your internet connection. We did this first speed test in Southern California without a VPN connection. This screen recording has been sped up, so the connection time may be longer than depicted.

From Portland, Oregon, we ran the VPN-enabled test using eight different server locations per service:

  • California
  • New York
  • Canada
  • England
  • Brazil
  • Australia
  • Switzerland
  • Japan

For services that offered automatic location selection—a feature designed to give you the best speed possible—we also ran the tests on whichever location the VPN software chose.

We ran the full series of tests with each location during three time periods that we chose to see whether internet rush hours drastically reduced performance:

  • Tuesday midday, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. Pacific
  • Tuesday evening, between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. Pacific
  • Sunday midday, between 10 a.m. and 12 p.m. Pacific

We also tested each VPN outside of these hours using its fastest connection on a MacBook Pro running macOS Catalina, a Pixel 2 phone running Android 11, and an iPhone SE running iOS 14.7. HomeGuard Professional 9.9.1 Crack, we tested the apps over video calls to see if any service caused frozen screens, slowdowns, or dropped connections.

Efficacy checks

To verify that each service we tested hid our true IP address effectively, we used a geolocation tool as well as sites that detect DNS leaks and WebRTC leaks. We visited the websites Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U Yelp, Target, and Akamai—sites that sometimes block suspicious IP addresses—to make sure the VPN IP addresses did not prevent us from accessing them.

Desktop and mobile apps

We also evaluated the interface and experience of the desktop and mobile apps of all the top-performing services. We set up each service’s Android app on a Pixel 2 phone running Android 11. We used iOS apps, when available, on an iPhone SE with iOS 14.7. We looked at the payment process, how easy each app was to set up and connect, and what options were available in the settings pane.

Customer support

We contacted each of our finalists with simple questions about their service and troubleshooting. VPN companies provide technical support through email, online ticketing systems, or live chat, but some chat options are not available outside of business hours. Our response times to support inquiries ranged from immediate chat responses to two days. Self-help support sites can be useful when you’re waiting for a reply with the inability to connect, so we looked at both the speed of response and the robustness of troubleshooting information available in the site’s support section.

Interviews and openness

In 2019, we whittled our list of four contenders down to three: IVPN, Mullvad, and TunnelBear. We reached out to these finalists for more information about their operations to judge their trustworthiness and transparency, and we spoke to two by phone and one over email. In 2021, the criteria we look for when evaluating VPN trustworthiness and transparency are now publicly visible, so we didn’t need to call the companies for our latest update to this guide.

Our pick: Mullvad

A smart phone on a lavender backdrop, with the Mullvad VPN app, our pick for best VPN, open on screen.

Mullvad is a secure VPN that provided a seamless experience during our testing: It was easy to set up, and it hummed along so quietly in the background that we would often forget that it was even turned on. The company excelled in signals of transparency and trust, and in our testing the service was easy to use and delivered some Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U the fastest speeds of any VPN we tried. Dedicated apps for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS make Mullvad simple to set up on a variety of devices even if you have little technical knowledge. Mullvad’s subscription is reasonably priced and costs the same whether you use the service for a month or a year, and one subscription can support up to five simultaneous connections at a time, so it’s easy to use on all of your devices, too.

A screen of the Mullvad VPN, our pick for best VPN service, showing a user their account number.

Although other VPNs we’ve considered have had third-party security audits in some form, Mullvad’s audits have been among the broadest in scope. Mullvad has also been the most consistent in conducting audits regularly, about once a year. In November and December 2020, Mullvad underwent its latest security audit, a process that is key for improving trust in an opaque industry. Conducted by cybersecurity consulting firm Cure53, the most recent infrastructure audit took five testers a total of 22 person-days to complete. In evaluating Mullvad, the auditors spotted 12 vulnerabilities, implementation issues, and other findings: two of high severity, two of medium severity, four of low severity, and four informational. In comparison, IVPN’s latest infrastructure audit, which was similar in scope, found three high-severity issues, two of medium severity, three of low severity, and one informational. Neither audit found any issues of critical severity, and both companies addressed the security issues quickly. Cure53’s report on Mullvad’s infrastructure states that “the attack surface offered by the published services should be judged as successfully minimized.”

Mullvad’s transparency is another strong signal of trust. Located in Sweden, the company behind the service (Amagicom) is directly owned by founders Fredrik Strömberg—who works on research and development in security—and Daniel Berntsson, and it lists its employees on its site. Many other VPNs have begun disclosing their ownership in recent years; it may be no coincidence that the services that still haven’t done so tend to also be prone to deceptive marketing and include suspicious “free” VPNs. Plus, according to Mullvad’s CEO, many of the people on its 22-person team use Qubes, a security-focused operating system designed to keep sensitive work isolated and secure even if an attacker rekordbox 5.8.2 key - Crack Key For U to breach another portion of the computer.

Many VPN services put their marketing promises front and center while keeping the specifics of those promises out of sight in a cryptic privacy policy, if they mention them at all. Mullvad keeps its policies comprehensive and transparent, and those policies generally indicate that it minimizes the data it collects at every step. Although the privacy policy is a bit jargony, its policy page links to additional documents explaining the company’s cookie policy, its no-logging policy, and the Swedish legislation it finds relevant as a VPN provider. The privacy policy states that the company does not collect or store activity logs of any kind. Both Mullvad and IVPN may not even collect an email address during sign-up, depending on how you choose to pay. Mullvad typically stores only the account number and the time remaining on an account, plus a few other configuration details. The stored data includes whether customers are making payments via PayPal, Stripe, Swish, or bank wire, or if they send an email or report a problem (additional information for other types of payments is described in various policy pages on the site). Mullvad stores transaction IDs and email addresses for PayPal transactions but deletes them after six months.

Mullvad has fairly readable terms of service, including details about what kinds of information the company collects and how it uses that information.

Mullvad also collects very little data on its website visitors, and all of the cookies that may track you on the Mullvad website expire when you close the browser window. Those cookies include one that allows you to log in, a cookie that retains your language preference, a security cookie that prevents cross-site request forgeries, and cookies for Mullvad’s payment processor for some payment types. In contrast, IVPN uses a self-hosted web-analytics service called Matomo and collects data on your browser user-agent, language, screen resolution, referring website, and IP address, though it does discard the last piece of the IP address. Research from The Markup shows that other VPNs have far more advertising and other third-party trackers on their sites. Along with ProtonVPN and Windscribe, Mullvad and IVPN were the only two services The Markup tested that had no trackers on their sites.

Mullvad has fairly readable terms of service, including details about what kinds of information the company collects and how it uses that information. As we discuss in the section on trusting a VPN, using a VPN service beholden to US laws provides for some level of consumer protection, but some people argue that services outside the US—like Mullvad in Sweden—are less likely to be swept up in US-government data-collection efforts. We’re unable to draw distinctions between the laws of Sweden and those of the US in this professional video editing software free download for android - Crack Key For U, but we do like that Mullvad includes details on how it handles government requests for data. It also says it retains lawyers to monitor the legal landscape and is prepared to shut down the service in the affected jurisdiction if a government somehow legally forces it to spy on its customers: “Just as where no data can be revealed if it does not first exist, the service can’t be used as a surveillance tool if it’s not in operation,” the company says.

Free trials are rare in this category, but we like that Mullvad offers a 30-day money-back guarantee so you can see if the server speeds and connections work for you. When you sign up for an account, Mullvad offers more payment options than IVPN, as it accepts credit card, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, PayPal, or Swish. Mullvad offers a 10% discount for payment in cryptocurrency. Although Mullvad accepts cash payments, too, most people aren’t going to mail cash to Sweden from the US, and those payments are not eligible for the money-back guarantee.

Horizontal bar graph showing both the average and US average download speeds for each of the four VPNs that we tested.

For a trusted VPN to be worthwhile, its network has to be useful, which generally means offering fast connection speeds and a wide variety of locations to connect through. Mullvad’s app allows you to connect to servers in 63 cities across 38 countries—more locations than on most VPNs we considered, although with fewer total servers than Surfshark, which offers more than 3,200 servers. With OpenVPN connection speeds, on average, Mullvad ranked first among the VPNs we tested during rush hour, and it did not freeze or drop video calls. Across nine locations, it averaged just about 15% faster than IVPN. During non-rush-hour traffic, Mullvad averaged 120.65 Mbps in the US. Mullvad’s phone apps were much faster than connecting on a computer, even with a mix of protocols available, averaging 163 Mbps on Android and 178 Mbps on iOS over Wi-Fi during non-rush-hour times. Like IVPN, Mullvad didn’t disrupt basic web browsing tasks, and neither service caused video calls to drop or freeze.

As for the security and connection standards Mullvad uses, it’s competitive with the other VPN services we found to be trustworthy. On Windows and macOS, Mullvad allows you to choose between the OpenVPN and WireGuard standards; on its iOS and Android apps, it uses WireGuard exclusively. We recommend using WireGuard for better security and faster speed. We like that Mullvad lays out its security standards clearly; although IVPN meets our standards, Clip Studio Paint EX Crack 1.10.13 With Serial Number Free Download company is less technical in its descriptions.

Mullvad includes a kill switch, which stops all traffic if the VPN disconnects. As with other competitors we tested, this feature worked as promised and kept our browsing and connections offline until the VPN connection was confirmed.

Mullvad’s open-source apps are available for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS. This flexibility makes Mullvad simple to set up on a variety of devices even if you have little technical knowledge. You can customize whether to launch the app on startup and to autoconnect when it launches. It also has a local-network sharing setting to access other devices on the same network, which prevents problems with printing and file sharing, a common issue for some VPNs. And though Mullvad didn’t disconnect randomly during our testing, it clearly and visually indicates when you are disconnected by changing the closed green lock icon to an open red lock. (IVPN is the same on Windows, but on a Mac, IVPN’s icon is black when connected and gray when disconnected, which can be harder to discern at a glance.) If you think a colorful icon clashes with an otherwise clean set of single-color icons, you can set the Mullvad icon not to change color by turning on the Monochromatic tray icon setting in Mullvad’s preferences panel.

A screen of the Mullvad VPN app, our pick for best VPN service, showing on/off toggles for preferences.
MullvadAbout $6About $72
IVPN Standard$6$60 (or $100 for two years, $140 for three years)
IVPN Pro$10$100 (or $160 for two years, $220 for three years)

Prices accurate as of October 21, 2021.

Whether you sign up for a month or a year, the cost of a Mullvad subscription is the same: €5 a month (usually around $5.50 to $6). In contrast, if you commit to a whole year of service of IVPN, that company charges $60 per year for its Standard tier and $100 per year for its Pro tier.

Mullvad offers some features that other VPN providers don’t. Although most people won’t take advantage of these extras, the existence of these options shows that the company invests a lot of thought into privacy and security. For instance, you can download Mullvad apps using the Tor Browser and verify the signatures for new app releases as well as install them on Android from the open-source Google Play store alternative, F-Droid. We were particularly impressed with the company’s design specifications, which describe how the application should work, the connections that it should be allowed to make, and how that differs on each individual platform. “That level of upfront specification means that you can test against that specification, which means that you can actually find deviations from it that indicate security issues. That’s a deeper level of knowledge about what you’re building than what I’ve seen for many other VPN providers,” said Dan Guido, CEO of Trail of Bits. Mullvad also supports installation on many routers, though it’s worthwhile to check and confirm that yours f.lux 4.75 Activation Code - Crack Key For U supported and what steps are required.

Flaws but not dealbreakers

It’s unfortunate that Mullvad doesn’t offer a free trial of any sort, but its 30-day money-back guarantee is a longer guarantee than many of its competitors offer. We prefer free trials because they make the process of verifying speeds before subscribing to a service so much easier.

Although Mullvad does not have a bug-bounty program, it does have a dedicated email address and PGP key for security researchers to report vulnerabilities, and it says it has rewarded findings in the past.

If you need to contact support, you have to go through email, as Mullvad doesn’t offer chat or phone support and does not use any third-party vendors for ticketing. When we checked its customer service in 2021, the company responded quickly, although not as quickly as some of its competitors, to a support email during the weekend and provided clear and informative responses. Its team operates support during weekday office hours on Central European time. Mullvad provides clear setup and anonymity guides, too.

Mullvad’s ad and ad-tracker blocking feature is a nice extra but requires some hands-on manual configuration to activate on its Android app. This stands in contrast to Mullvad’s iOS and macOS apps, which feature easy on/off switches for blocking ad tracking or blocking ads altogether.

Also great: IVPN

A smart phone on a lavender backdrop, with the IVPN app, our also great pick for best VPN, open on the screen.

If you want to get faster responses to support tickets, more easily install a VPN on network-attached storage, or pay for your subscription with Monero, IVPN is a good choice. It is fast, consistent, and easy to use on Windows, Mac, Android, and iOS. Like Mullvad, its website includes detailed information on its policies and a readable terms-of-service page. Although IVPN has fewer server locations than Mullvad, it was almost as fast in our tests.

A screen of the IVPN, our also great pick for best VPN service, showing pricing plans.

As with Mullvad, we found that the company behind IVPN (Privatus Limited) stands out from the competition on signs of trust and transparency.  The company, incorporated in Gibraltar, lists its core team on Cockos REAPER 5.94 Crack + Keygen Full Version Download website, and founder and CEO Nick Pestell answered all of our questions about its operations. IVPN has 11 full-time staffers, one of whom works specifically on infrastructure security and reliability. It seems committed to transparency, and it has undergone a public, third-party security audit of its infrastructure; the auditors also confirmed that IVPN fixed the issues found during the audit. In 2021, IVPN followed up with an additional security audit of its apps, bringing its audit coverage roughly to parity with Mullvad’s.

The settings screen IVPN, our also great pick for best VPN service.

IVPN also posts a transparency report that shows the number of valid legal requests it received from government or law enforcement agencies in a given year, going back to 2016. VPN advertisements are ripe with overstatements, so we like that IVPN makes a point to say that it does not advertise or guarantee complete anonymity, enable geoblocked content on streaming services, or offer a way around the Great Firewall of China. Additionally, IVPN has published ethical guidelines on its site, including clear, detailed information on its marketing methods and ethical commitments.

Graph with a bar for each of the four VPNs we tested, server locations down the left axis, and speed on the other axis.

Although IVPN has fewer servers than Mullvad, it was almost as fast in our tests, and it was the second-fastest VPN we tested during rush hour. We like that IVPN lets you choose the city of the server you want to log in to, or it can automatically select the fastest connection, an option that Mullvad does not offer.

Like Mullvad, IVPN is open source and includes an option to use WireGuard, which we recommend. WireGuard’s modern and minimal architecture makes it fast, as well as easier for VPNs to implement securely. Although OpenVPN remains the most common VPN protocol, WireGuard has recently made inroads with many other VPNs, as well. Mullvad and IVPN are also pretty similar once configured. IVPN offers a kill switch in the form of an always-on firewall option, which worked when we tested it.

Whereas Mullvad has a hard limit of five devices per subscriber, IVPN provides two subscription tiers: a Standard account, which works for up to two devices simultaneously, or a more expensive Pro account, which works with as many as seven. A Pro account also includes port forwarding, which most people don’t need, and multihop, which routes your connection through multiple servers in separate jurisdictions; multihop can also slow down your speed exponentially, however, and you can get the same benefit from using Tor for free. Both plans offer the ability to subscribe for a week, a month, or one, two, or three years, with an increasingly discounted rate when you start committing to years—a pricing feature not available with Mullvad, which charges a fixed monthly price. If you go with IVPN, we recommend choosing an account type by the number of devices you plan to install it on. Annoyingly, IVPN limits you by how many devices you’re logged in to, not how many you’re actively using; for example, although you can install IVPN on a tablet, computer, and phone with a Standard account, you have to repeatedly log in and out if you bounce between those devices.

IVPN may be a better choice for anyone who is less comfortable with doing their own technical troubleshooting. Its support was more responsive and helpful than some we tried, as IVPN representatives responded quickly to our support ticket during the weekend, providing clear and informative answers. You can also get help via chat during business hours. The company has two customer service staffers providing around 18 hours of coverage per day both through ticket requests and via chat (though the chat may be offline if a staff member is working on a ticket). IVPN’s CEO told us that 81% of tickets in May 2020 were answered within an hour, and that an additional 18.1% were answered within one to four hours. Mullvad doesn’t keep stats on its support responses but says it operates customer support during weekday office hours in Central European time.

Annoyingly, IVPN limits you by how many devices you’re logged in to, not how many you’re actively using.

As with Mullvad, most of the IVPN apps have the ability to block trackers (though this function isn’t available for Android phones using the app from the Google Play store; instead you have to delete previously installed versions and download the APK file from the site). But most people should block trackers through free extensions like Privacy Badger and uBlock Origin, anyway. IVPN also offers a Hardcore Mode in which you can block Facebook and Google altogether, though this isn’t a feature that most people will want to use unless they have a high tolerance for broken sites. In addition, IVPN allows you to set specific Wi-Fi networks as trusted, so you can choose not to use your VPN on your home Wi-Fi, for example, without disabling the kill-switch setting.

What about HTTPS?

If HTTP browsing is a postcard that anyone can read as it travels along, HTTPS (HTTP Secure) is a sealed letter that gives up only where it’s going. For example, before Wirecutter implemented HTTPS, your browsing traffic could reveal both the exact page you visited (such as and its content to the owner of the Wi-Fi network, your network administrator, or your ISP. But if you visit that same page today—our website now uses HTTPS—those parties would see only the domain (that is, The downside is that the website operator has to implement HTTPS. Sites that deal with banking or shopping have been using these types of secure connections for a long time to protect financial data, and in the past few years many major news and information sites, including that of The New York Times, have implemented it, as well.

What a snooper sees when you’re browsing

Secure HTTPS websitesOutdated HTTP websites

Even without a VPN, websites like these that default to HTTPS give you extra privacy online. If they didn’t, a lot more information about your browsing habits would be available to prying eyes, whether they be Wi-Fi operators, ISPs, or independent bad actors.

HTTPS is a powerful feature because it helps keep sensitive browsing private at no extra cost to the people using it. But like most security standards, it has some potential problems. That little lock icon in your browser bar, which indicates the HTTPS connection, relies on a certificate “signed” by a recognized authority. But there are hundreds of such authorities, and as the EFF says, “the security of HTTPS is only as strong as the practices of the least trustworthy/competent CA [certificate authorities].” Some security professionals have worried about those least-competent authorities, spurring groups to improve on the certificate standards and prompting browsers to add warnings when you come across certificates and sites that don’t withstand scrutiny. So HTTPS is good, and it’s getting better—but like anything, it isn’t perfect.

What about Tor?

Tor is a free service that attempts to preserve anonymity—something that VPNs do not do. It is a distributed network that runs traffic through multiple relays.

If you aren’t familiar with Tor, this handy interactive graphic shows how it protects an internet connection, and this series of articles goes into more detail about how Tor works. Runa Sandvik, a former researcher with The Tor Project who was part of the information security team at The New York Times at the time of our interview, described it as “a tool that allows users to remain anonymous and uncensored.”

Tor does not write any history to disk, allowing you to do internet research without leaving a trail back to you or leaving a forensic trace on your computer.

Although it cannot protect you from, say, targeted government surveillance, Tor can be useful for looking up private information, such as medical conditions, without your activity being traced back to you or added to a marketing profile. Tor uses a different circuit from a different IP address in each tab, making it more difficult for other parties to link your searches and accounts across tabs. However, Tor can be blocked by some websites and has a reputation for slow connections.

What about creating your own VPN?

One way to resolve the issue of trust is to be your own VPN provider, but that’s not a feasible option for most people. Plus, it still requires trust in any company providing the hardware that your VPN would run on, such as Amazon’s cloud services. Multiple projects can help you cheaply turn any old server into a VPN, including Algo, Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U, and Streisand. By encrypting all the traffic from your home or mobile device to a server you manage, you deprive your ISP and a potentially villainous VPN of all your juicy traffic logs. But most people lack the skills, patience, or energy—or some combination of the three—to do this. If you don’t manage servers or work in IT, it may be harder to manage perfect security, operation, and performance better than trustworthy professionals can. Lastly, although you remove one threat from the equation by cutting out a VPN service provider, you also lose the extra layer of privacy that comes from your traffic mixing in with that of hundreds or thousands of other customers.

The competition

Surfshark had previously kept details of its leadership private but made them public in 2021. The company also conducted a white-box infrastructure audit. Although its regular pricing is less competitive than Mullvad’s and IVPN’s at $13 per month, that price includes the ability to use Surfshark on an unlimited number of devices, something those other services don’t offer. Surfshark’s customer service response time was generally faster than that of Mullvad or IVPN, but its OpenVPN speeds were 50% slower than our top pick’s average. Surfshark privileges the use of the speedier, but somewhat questionable, IPsec protocol over OpenVPN or WireGuard whenever it’s faster. We noticed the app switching back to IPsec even after setting the preferred protocol to WireGuard in the macOS app. If you want to connect to Surfshark with OpenVPN on macOS, you need to separately download a certificate file and use it with a third-party OpenVPN client. Still, if the security concerns surrounding IPsec are not Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U to your situation, it’s not a bad choice, especially if you have a Tenorshare UltData iOS Free Activate of devices to connect.

We had a great experience with TunnelBear in the past, which prompted us to name it as our top pick previously. It windows 7 professional product key to download iso excels in trust, transparency, and usability. In addition to publishing the results of multiple recent security audits, the company posts regular transparency reports and has a clear, easy-to-understand privacy policy. But we’ve consistently experienced slow speeds over the years. It was slow both during and outside of internet rush hour, and we experienced some lag on video calls while running the VPN. Unlike Mullvad and IVPN, TunnelBear does not allow customers to specify a specific city to connect to, and it does not offer WireGuard. If you’re a current TunnelBear customer and happy with your speed, we don’t recommend switching to another VPN. If you’d like to test it out yourself, you can get 500 MB free each month.

Like Mullvad and IVPN’s apps, Mozilla VPN’s apps were audited by Cure53, with results comparable to those of competitors that have opted to have their apps audited. Mozilla VPN connects to Mullvad’s servers rather than its own infrastructure, which gives it an advantage in leveraging the already-existing servers of a VPN company with high marks for security, privacy, and speed. But there’s little reason to use Mozilla VPN over Mullvad, as Mullvad’s apps are just as easy to use, have also undergone security audits, and ultimately connect to the same servers. One small advantage that Mozilla VPN offers: Its pricing does get cheaper than Mullvad’s, lowering to $5 a month if you pay for a whole year in advance.

We dismissed several other services before performance testing for a variety of reasons., formerly Cloak and now StrongVPN, was recently bought by J2 and has been rolled into the new parent company’s existing StrongVPN product. The acquisition brought in’s servers and customers but not its tradition of conducting third-party audits and making them available to prospective subscribers.

Some other VPNs—including VyprVPN and Cloudflare’s Warp—had public audits but with a scope limited to verifying enforcement of their no-logging policies, leaving out the security of their server infrastructure; we ruled them out for that reason.

ExpressVPN has released a mix of audits for the build verification process it used when compiling its apps, but not for the apps themselves or its infrastructure. Its new ownership and staffing additionally raised other trust concerns in our minds, making its omission of an infrastructure audit even more of a problem.

Similarly, NordVPN has recently undergone a series of third-party audits for its apps by cybersecurity consulting firm VerSprite, but this series did not include an audit of its infrastructure. Additionally, NordVPN makes these audit reports available only to existing subscribers, so prospective customers have no way to see the audit’s findings until after they’ve made their purchase.

Other VPNs we considered testing but ruled out because they had no recent public audits at all include: AirVPN, Astrill, AzireVPN, blackVPN, BTGuard, CactusVPN, Cryptostorm, CyberGhost, Disconnect,, FrootVPN, F-Secure Freedome VPN, Goose VPN,, InvinciBull, IPredator, IPVanish, KeepSolid, nVpn, OVPN, Perfect Privacy, personalVPN, PrivateVPN, Private Tunnel, Private Internet Access, PureVPN, SurfEasy, TorGuard, TorrentPrivacy, Trust.Zone, VPN.AC,, VPNTunnel, Windscribe, ZenGuard/ZenMate, and ZorroVPN.

We ruled out some VPNs for trust issues. EarthVPN appears to have lied about its logging practices, while ProxySH confessed to spying on customer traffic in 2013. HideMyAss has handed customer information over to police. The Center for Democracy & Technology filed a 14-page complaint about Hotspot Shield with the FTC, alleging unfair and deceptive trade practices. None of these VPNs appear to have had third-party security audits, either.

We did not include the Guardian firewall and VPN, which is currently available only for iOS.

Frequently asked questions

Can I change my location with a VPN?

Yes, most VPNs allow you to pick a location for your IP address, which can get around some geo-restricted websites and online censorship. However, doing so isn’t always useful


Privacy Tools v19.84 secure

For easy copy & paste on social media platforms, messengers and emails.

Web Browsers for better Internet Privacy

Firefox: Reliable, fast and privacy friendly

Fast Win Android iOS Mac Linux

It's recommended to install additional browser addons to strengthen Firefox even more. Firefox is able to sync accross all your devices on different platforms. Firefox is not the perfect out of the box solution but It's definetly worth it to take the extra time and setup Firefox properly.

Check for WebRTC & DNS leaks and learn how to fix them with the connection check at

Hardening & Tweaking: The default settings of Firefox are not the best choice to be a privacy respecting browser. Use Firefox Profilemaker to adjust the settings. An alternative is to download the hardened Arkenfox's user.js - Place this in your Firefox's user.js directory and it will fix everything for you. You can also do it manually.

Tor: Encrypted out of the box for extra privacy and anonymity

Slow Anonymity Win Android Mac Linux

Tor Browser is your choice if you need an extra layer of anonymity. It's a modified version of Firefox, which comes with pre-installed privacy add-ons, encryption, and an advanced proxy. It's not recommended to install additional browser addons. Plugins or addons may bypass Tor or compromise your privacy.

Brave: Fast, cross-platform and block ads & trackers

Fast Win Android iOS Mac Linux

Not a popular choice within the privacy community but it offers a complete package out of the box on all platforms and is suitable for beginners or if setup time is a factor at the given situation. Wikipedia offers more information about it's controversies.

Privacy related browser checks:

  • A wide range of security testing tools GoodSync serial number - Free Activators will show you what kind of personal identity data can be leaked, and how to protect yourself from this.
  • LocateJS: Predicts your location by analyzing your connection and system data. This scan allows you to understand how your location can be pinpointed even while using a VPN, location spoofer or private mode.
  • Supports checks for WebRTC leaks, DNS leaks, Geolocation, Torrent Address detection and more.
  • Cover Your Tracks by Test your browser to see how well you are protected from tracking and fingerprinting. It shows your browser’s most unique and identifying characteristics. Less Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U is better.
  • Open-source tests of web browser privacy. A useful resource for comparing browsers.

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“Surveillance is the business model of the Internet.” ― Bruce Schneier

Browser Addons to improve your internet privacy even further

HTTPS Everywhere: Secure Connections

Android Firefox Chrome Opera Edge

This plugin is already included in Brave (Desktop & Mobile), Tor (Desktop & Android) and Onion Browser (iOS only). It can be installed for Firefox on Android. Most browsers support HTTPS already after activation.

We are not linking to the plugin directly anymore, instead straight to the Tutorial of on how to activate HTTPS in every browser. After the end of this year, the extension will be WinISO 6.5 Crack Free Download for Windows “maintenance mode.” for 2022.

Decentraleyes: Block Content Delivery Networks

Android Firefox Chrome Opera Edge

Emulates Content Delivery Networks locally by intercepting requests and injecting it into the environment. Automatically, and no configuration required. Can be installed for Firefox on Android.

Back to the Easeus Partition Master 15.8 Crack 2021 Keygen Latest “There is a massive apparatus within the US government that with complete secrecy has been building this enormous structure that has only one goal, and that is to destroy privacy and anonymity, not just in the United States but around the world.” ― Glenn Greenwald

The best and most reliable VPN Services for your Privacy

We have compared 185 different VPN providers, but our strict criteria left only the three best providers. Our recommended providers are operating outside the USA or other Five Eyes countries, use a strong encryption, accept Crypto currencies or cash payments, support OpenVPN, have a no logging policy and have a long history of operating.

Mullvad: 60 Euro Yearly

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin Cash

Based in Sweden. Operating since 2009. Accepts Bitcoin, BCH and Cash. Native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS and are easy to use. Money back guarantee for 30 days.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 763 VPN servers, in 38 different countries. Source

ProtonVPN: Limited free version available, otherwise 48 EUR Yearly

Freemium Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin

Based in Switzerland. Operating since 2016. Accepts Bitcoin, but you need an existing account or contact their support team in advance. Easy to use native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 1200+ VPN servers available in 55 different countries. Source

IVPN: 60 USD Yearly

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Bitcoin Monero Cash

Based in Gibraltar. Operating since 2009. Accepts Bitcoin, Monero and Cash. Native desktop and mobile clients are available for Android and iOS and are easy to use. Money back guarantee for 30 days.

Amount of servers in Oct 2021: 139 VPN servers available in 32 different countries. Source


Friendly reminder

Using a VPN will not keep your browsing habits anonymous, nor will it add additional security to non-secure (HTTP) traffic. If you are looking for anonymity, you should use the Tor Browser instead of a VPN. Don't replace good security practices with a VPN service. If you're looking for additional privacy from your ISP, on a public Wi-Fi network, or while torrenting files, a VPN may be the solution for you.

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“Privacy is what allows us to determine who we are and who we want to be” ― Edward Snowden

Private Email Providers

ProtonMail: Secure email for the independent professional

Freemium Encryption Tor Bitcoin Web Android iOS

Based in Switzerland, founded in 2013. Free and paid plans include all security features, including end-to-end encryption, zero-access encryption, anti-phishing, anti-spam and 2FA. Own Android, iOS Apps and web interface. Paid plans enable custom domains. Accessible via Tor Network.

Tutanota: Easy to use and private by design

Freemium Encryption Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Based in Germany, founded in 2011. Native cross platform apps available. Paid plans enable custom domains. No third-party email clients are supported, users need to use the wide range of native apps.

Disroot: Secure email for your desktop client or via a web interface

Free Plan Encryption Web

Based in The Netherlands, founded in 2015. Free plans support custom domains. Users can choose between their web client or third party desktop clients like Thunderbird. Disroot allows for encrypted emails to be sent from their webmail application using OpenPGP.

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“Nothing to hide, but nothing to show either.”

Anonymous Email Forwarding with Aliases

SimpleLogin: Hide your existing email address

Freemium Android iOS Firefox Chrome Safari Web

Emails are forwarded to your real email address. If you reply to a sender it will use your alias, too. It is designed to be user friendly and available on many platforms.

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“I see Edward Snowden as someone who has chosen, at best, exile from the country he loves-with a serious risk of his assassination by agents of his government or life in prison (in solitary confinement)-to awaken us to the danger of our loss of democracy to a total-surveillance state” ― Daniel Ellsberg

Email Clients for better Internet Privacy

Android - K-9 Mail: Advanced Email for your phone


K-9 Mail is an open source email client focused on making it easy to chew through large volumes of email. Designed for both novice and power users and offers lots of features for everyone.

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“FREEDOM IS SLAVERY.” ― Ministry of Truth

Web Search without being tracked

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“Privacy is what allows us to determine who we are and who we want to be” ― Edward Snowden

The Best Privacy-Friendly World Maps Alternatives

Avoid: Apple Maps, Bing Maps, Google Earth and Google Maps.

Organic Maps: Offline hike, bike, trails and navigation

Android iOS Huawei AppGallery

Organic Maps is an Android & iOS offline maps app for travelers, tourists, hikers, and cyclists based on top of crowd-sourced OpenStreetMap data and curated with love by MapsWithMe (Maps.Me) founders.

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“The solution to government surveillance is to encrypt everything” ― Eric Schmidt

Secure Password Managers

Spectre: Generated passwords, no storage needed

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Formerly Master Password. Passwords aren't stored: they are generated on-demand from your name, the site, and your master password. No syncing, backups, or internet access needed. The Windows version requires to install Java. Same principle like LessPass, but LessPass is more convenient to use because of the Browser Addons.

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“Facebook is not your friend, it is a surveillance engine.” ― Richard Stallman

Privacy Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) Tools

Avoid: Authy or Google Authenticator.

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

File Sharing and Synchronizating

OnionShare: Anonymous file transfer via Tor

Tor Win Mac Linux

OnionShare is an open source tool that lets you securely and anonymously share files, host websites, and chat with friends using the Tor network. Share files, host websites, and chat anonymously via a new tabbed interface for maximum productivity.

Syncthing: Continuous file synchronization

Win Android Mac Linux

Synchronizes files between two or more computers in real time, safely protected from prying eyes. Your data is your data alone and you deserve to choose where it is stored, whether it is shared with some third party, and how it's transmitted over the internet.

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

File Encryption Software

VeraCrypt: On-the-fly Disk Encryption

Win Mac Linux Raspberry Pi

It can create a virtual encrypted disk that works just like a regular disk but within a file. It can also encrypt a partition or the entire storage device with pre-boot authentication.

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“We'd do well to remember that at the end of the day, the law doesn't defend us; we defend the law. And when it becomes contrary to our morals, we have both the right and the responsibility to rebalance it toward just ends.” ― Edward Snowden

Encrypted Cloud Storage Services

Avoid: Dropbox, Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive and Apple iCloud.

Nextcloud: Self-hosting or choose a provider for your data

Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web

Nextcloud is functionally similar to Dropbox, Office 365 or Google Drive. It can be hosted in the cloud or on-premises. It is scalable from home office solutions based on the low cost Raspberry Pi all the way through to full sized data centre solutions that support millions of users.

If you're not able to switch your cloud service immediatly, consider encrypting with Cryptomator.

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“We don't have to ask for our privacy, we can take it back” ― Edward Snowden

Secure Web Hosting & Domain Provider

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“Privacy is what allows us to determine who we are and who we want to be” ― Edward Snowden

Buy Cryptocurrency

Binance: Largest cryptocurrency exchange world-wide with P2P Feature

Affiliated Win Android iOS Mac Linux Web Monero KYC required

Founded in 2017 and became quickly the largest exchange in the world in terms of daily trading volume of cryptocurrencies. P2P trading available. Update: Sep 17, 2021: Binance requires all users to get verified.

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“I had been looking for leaders, but I realized that leadership is about being the first to act.” ― Edward Snowden

Monero: A privacy-enhanced cryptocurrency for anonymity

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“I see Edward Snowden as someone who has chosen, at best, exile from the country he loves-with a serious risk of his assassination by agents of his government or life in prison (in solitary confinement)-to awaken us to the danger of our loss of democracy to a total-surveillance state” ― Daniel Ellsberg

Privacy-enhancing Bitcoin Wallets

CoinJoin is a trustless method for combining multiple Bitcoin payments from multiple spenders into a single transaction to make it more difficult for outside parties to determine which spender paid which recipient. Unlike many other privacy solutions, coinjoin transactions do not require a modification to the bitcoin protocol.

Samourai: Android Wallet

Tor CoinJoin Android Phones Tablets

Built-in trustless CoinJoin. Full offline mode. Designed to keep miner fees as low as possible.

BitLox: Hardware Wallet

Affiliated Tor Android iOS Chrome Web

Fully secured cryptocurrency wallet with the mind of keeping your Bitcoin transactions anonymous. Their Bitcoin Block Explorer is accessible over the Tor and I2P network.

Wasabi: Desktop Wallet

Tor CoinJoin Win Mac Linux

Non-custodial, privacy-focused Bitcoin wallet for Desktop, that implements trustless CoinJoin.

More information:

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“In digital era, privacy must be a priority. Is it just me, or is secret blanket surveillance obscenely outrageous?” ― Al Gore

Crytpo DeFi Swap on a Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

Cryptocurrency exchanges which allow for direct peer-to-peer cryptocurrency transactions to take place securely and without the need for a third party to oversee transfer of assets. DEX are more anonymous than commercial exchanges which implement know your customer (KYC) requirements. This list is sorted by trading volume.

Telegram Channels are targeted by scammers, don't share your key phrases with anyone. Admins of the official channels are not sending private messages to users. Beware of anyone reaching out via private message.

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“We watch our own people more closely than anyone else in the world.” ― Edward Snowden

Encrypted and Secure Instant Messaging

Avoid: Facebook Messenger, Google Hangouts, LINE, Telegram, Snapchat, Tencent QQ, Viber, WeChat, WhatsApp.

Threema: Centralized, encrypted messaging for mobile

Paid Android iOS Huawei AppGallery Web Bitcoin

No native desktop apps available yet, but there is a web version for your browser. No phone number is required to signup but there is a payment involved to get the app. Fortunately the Threema shop accepts Bitcoin.

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“In digital era, privacy must be a priority. Is it just me, or is secret blanket surveillance obscenely outrageous?” ― Al Gore

Encrypted Video & Voice Messengers

Avoid: Skype, Zoom, TeamSpeak, Discord and Ventrilo.

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“I see Edward Snowden as someone who has chosen, at best, exile from the country he loves-with a serious risk of his assassination by agents of his government or life in prison (in solitary confinement)-to awaken us to the danger of our loss of democracy to a total-surveillance state” ― Daniel Ellsberg

DNS Network Level Ad Blocking for better Privacy and Speed

NextDNS: Blocks security threats, ads and trackers

Easy to Setup Win Android iOS Mac Linux Browsers Router

The major advantage of NextDNS over AdGuard DNS is to be able to configure the service to your needs via parental controls, website restrictions or block whole categories of websites and apps. Easy to setup within minutes. Comes with setup guides for all systems. 300,000 queries/month for free, after that it will just work like a classic non-blocking DNS service.

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“We don't have to ask for our privacy, we can take it back” ― Edward Snowden

YouTube Alternatives

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“There is a massive apparatus within the US government that with complete secrecy has been building this enormous structure that has only one goal, and that is to destroy privacy and anonymity, not just in the United States but around the world.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Decentralized Social Networks

Redact: Delete your digital footprint

Sponsored Win Mac Linux Closed-Source

Allows you to automatically clean up your old posts from services like Twitter, Reddit, Facebook, Discord and more all in one place. Delete by key word, sentiment and content type.

Tip of the day:

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

Blog Software for Self and Managed Hosting

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“We'd do well to remember that at the end of the day, the law doesn't defend us; we defend the law. And when it becomes contrary to our morals, we have both the right and the responsibility to rebalance it toward just ends.” ― Edward Snowden

Encrypted Digital Notebooks

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“You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing. If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care about those values very much.” ― Edward Snowden

Productivity & Collaboration Privacy Tools for Work

LibreOffice: Complete desktop office solution

Win Mac Linux

LibreOffice consists of programs for word processing, creating and editing of spreadsheets, slideshows, diagrams and drawings, working with databases, and composing mathematical formulae. It is available in 115 languages.

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“My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.” ― Edward Snowden

Privacy Friendly Operating Systems

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“The government should be afraid of the people, the people shouldn't be afraid of the government.” ― Edward Snowden

Privacy and Security Tools for Windows 10 and 11

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“Nothing to hide, but nothing to show either.”

Privacy Friendly Mobile Operating Systems

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“FREEDOM IS SLAVERY.” ― Ministry of Truth

Android Keyboard Alternatives That Respect Your Privacy

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“My sole motive is to inform the public PC HelpSoft Driver Updater Free Download to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.” ― Edward Snowden

Open Source Router Firmware

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“We should not be comfortable or content in a society where the only way to remain free of surveillance and repression is if we make ourselves as unthreatning, passive, and compliant as possible.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Privacy Friendly Translation Tools

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“The US government still has no idea what documents I have because encryption works” ― Edward Snowden

Self-Contained Anonymizing Networks

Tor: Most popular, biggest and cross-platform network available

Anonymity Encryption Win Android iOS Mac Linux

Tor, short for The Onion Router, is for enabling anonymous communication. It directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer overlay network, consisting of more than six thousand relays, for concealing a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis.

I2P: Censorshipo-resistant peer-to-peer network

Win Android Mac Linux

The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer-to-peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by end-to-end encrypting the user's traffic, and sending it through a volunteer-run network of roughly 55,000 computers distributed around the world.

ZeroNet: Uses existing Bitcoin cryptography and the BitTorrent network

Win Android Mac Linux

ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users. Instead of having an IP address, sites are identified by a public key (specifically a bitcoin address). The private key allows the owner of a site to sign and publish changes, which propagate through the network. Sites can be accessed through an ordinary web browser when using the ZeroNet application, which acts as a local webhost for such pages.

IPFS: Protocol and P2P network for storing and sharing data

Win Mac Linux

The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol and peer-to-peer network for storing and sharing data in a distributed file system. IPFS uses content-addressing to uniquely identify each file in a global namespace connecting all computing devices

GNUnet: Software framework in support of a free and open society

Linux (official) Win (unofficial) Mac (unofficial)

For decentralized, peer-to-peer networking and an official GNU package. The framework offers link encryption, peer discovery, resource allocation, communication over many transports (such as TCP, UDP, HTTP, HTTPS, WLAN and Bluetooth) and various basic peer-to-peer algorithms for routing, multicast and network size estimation.

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“We should not be comfortable or content in a society where the only way to best movie organizer software 2019 free of surveillance and repression is if we make ourselves as unthreatning, passive, and compliant as possible.” ― Glenn Greenwald

Open Source Torrent Clients without Ads and Tracking

Your IP address is exposed while using any Torrent Client. Consider using a VPN provider to hide your IP. If you are using µTorrent that includes ads and tracking, select your alternative here.

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“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” ― George Orwell, 1984

Disk & File Cleaners with Privacy Features

ExifCleaner: Privacy metadata removal tool

Fast Win Mac Linux

Removes metadata for the most popular image and video formats. It also supports PDF files and comes with batch-processing to process multiple files at once. Drag and Drop interface, easy to use.

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“A child born today will grow up with no conception of privacy at all.” ― Edward Snowden

RSS Feed Readers

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“If wars can be started by lies, they can be stopped by truth.” ― Julian Assange

Secure Whistleblower Tools

Briar: P2P encrypted messaging for activists and journalists

Tor Android Phones Tablets

Briar doesn't rely on a central server - messages are synchronized directly between the users' devices via Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Online sync via the Tor network is possible, too. Protecting users from surveillance.

OnionShare: Anonymous file transfer via Tor

Tor Win Mac Linux

OnionShare is an open source tool that lets you securely and anonymously share files, host websites, and chat with friends using the Tor network. Share files, host websites, and chat anonymously via a new tabbed interface for maximum productivity.

Worth Mentioning:

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“Openness and participation are antidotes to surveillance and control.” ― Howard Rheingold

Known Privacy Related Incidents & Gag Orders to Date

2021, ProtonMail: ProtonMail logged IP address of French activist after an order by Swiss authorities. Source

2021, WindScribe VPN: Servers were not encrypted as they should have been allowing MITM attacks by authorities. Source

2021, DoubleVPN: Servers, logs, and account info seized by law enforcement. Source

2017, PureVPN: Forced to Avast SecureLine VPN 2018 Cracked + License File Free Download information of one user to the FBI. Source

2014, EarthVPN: User was arrested based on logs provider to the Dutch Polic because of a bomb hoax. Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U, Lavabit Email: Secure E-Mail provider Lavabit shuts down after fighting a secret gag order. Source

2011, HideMyAss VPN: User was de-anonymized, and logs were provided to the FBI in a labeled "LulzSec fiasco". Source

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What is a Warrant Canary?

A term for a regularly published statement that a service provider has not received legal process that it would be prohibited from saying it had received, such as a national security letter. Transparency reports and warrant canaries have an important role to play in the fight against illegal and unconstitutional national security process, including National Security Letters and other secret court processes. Wikipedia

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“Under observation, we act less free, which means we effectively are less free.” ― Edward Snowden

For easy copy & paste on social media platforms, messengers and emails.

Let the (third-party) cookie crumble

In fact, brands and agencies can test and run cookie-less campaigns today and open up new opportunities to connect with key audiences. With mounting pressure from consumers, privacy campaigners, and regulators – and the opportunity for a few giant tech companies to capitalize on the change – the shift away from the third-party cookie still looms large. What you have to ask yourself is, will you carry on as normal and then resume fretting about this change in 15 months’ time? Or will you start preparing for the cookie-less future today?

It’s certainly true that a lot could happen between now and 2023. But it’s highly unlikely that a replacement technology is going to pop into existence fully-formed and ready to take over all the heavy lifting involved in measuring audiences, planning campaigns, valuing ad impressions, and enabling dynamic creative optimization, frequency capping, campaign optimization, and attribution.

There are many contenders touted to help fulfill these essential advertising duties once the third-party cookie is no more. Will it be first-party data, email-based deterministic identifiers, cohorts, probabilistic models, data clean rooms, or contextual? Yes, it will be all of those and more.

There won’t be a one-size-fits-all answer here. The deprecation of the third-party cookie has made clear the inherent fragility in relying on just one approach. Besides, no one approach is likely to be able to match the third-party cookie in all aspects of operation, at least not without many more years of innovation and iteration.

Dealing with the inherent complexity of this shift will require better use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning technology to effectively weave together and interpret a combination of different approaches to support the critical tasks of audience planning, campaign activation, and measurement.

For brands, the implications go well beyond digital advertising alone. As first-party data becomes a key currency of the future, brands will have to think hard about their customer experience and approach to customer relationship management (CRM). It’s going to require a team effort, as these decisions will bleed down cross-functionally to shape brand and marketing strategy, data strategy, technology investment, compliance, and corporate partnerships.

For agencies, their future will have to be more data-driven as well. Besides bolstering their own data analysis capabilities, they have a critical role to play in helping clients navigate the complexity of interpreting audience and campaign insights to enhance digital advertising in this new frontier.

Testing times

The good news is that Google’s announcement to delay the cookie deprecation has created the perfect testing ground for those willing to seize the moment.

Already today, cookie-less environments abound, most notably in Safari and Firefox. This means that audiences representing as much as one-third of all internet activity exist without third-party cookies to inform marketing strategy, activation, and measurement. However, new solutions are now illuminating this less accessible part of the web by enabling brands and agencies to test and run cookie-less campaigns – right now.

This is a world of untapped opportunity for marketers. By going cookie-less before the mad dash that will play out in 2023, you can enjoy less competition and test your strategy in a cost-effective manner. The lessons learned will inform the rethinking of not just your marketing, but of the role of data across the entire customer journey and the personalized experiences that tomorrow can bring.

Pick the right tool for the job

At Quantcast, we believe that the key to the cookie-less future lies in embracing the plurality of approaches for a sophisticated and holistic view of the internet. Without third-party cookies, the primary mechanism used to interpret and connect cross-site signals will no longer be an option. Therefore, new approaches must interpret and combine multiple data signals, to fully leverage the information available across all of them.

This is where AI comes in. Ara, our AI and machine learning engine, can process a multitude of signals and Adobe CC 2017 Applications advanced statistical techniques to combine them and interpret the patterns of online audiences. For example, using advances in contextual analysis, it is able to organize the open internet into a TopicMap, a multi-dimensional analysis of content by topics and interests, to support the planning of custom audiences based on browsing behavior, interest, and intent. By stitching together rich and wide-ranging signals, Ara helps determine the relevance of an ad impression, conduct optimized evaluation, pricing, and bidding, and orchestrate campaigns to deliver superior business results.

With the Quantcast Platform, you can compare campaigns run in environments with and without third-party cookies, just by ticking a box. The platform operates on one of the world’s largest unique real-time data sets, delivering intelligent audience insights, advertising performance, and results at scale. This allows you to unearth the insights you need to master the transition, while reaching untapped audiences. Remember, the clock to 2023 is ticking.

Change means opportunity – so seize it

The demise of the third-party cookie has been greeted in apocalyptic terms – and with corresponding apprehension – by many. It’s certainly bringing change to digital advertising and forcing the industry to rethink the status quo. But, with change comes undeniable opportunity.

As an industry, we now have an opportunity to build a better approach to personalization that delivers outcomes for advertisers and publishers alike. So, let the cookie crumble. It’s time to embrace innovation and enter the next chapter of advertising on the open internet.


If Office activation fails, you'll see Unlicensed Product or Non-commercial use / Unlicensed Product in the title bar of your Office apps, and most features of Office are disabled. To restore all features of Office, you'll need to fix the problem that's causing activation to fail.

Step 1: Sign in to Office with the right account

If Office asks you to sign in, enter the account you used to buy Office. You'll see "We couldn't find any Office products" if you use the wrong address.

Try this: Sign in to Office

Step 2: Check for multiple copies of Office

You may not realize you have more than one copy installed. Having two installs can cause activation conflicts.

Try this: Check for multiple copies of Office

Step 1: Sign in with the right account

Please try signing in using all your personal email addresses in case you bought Office using a different email address. If you're at work or school, you may need to log in using your work or school account instead of your personal email account.

To check if your Microsoft account is associated with Office, sign in to Services & subscriptions. Your Office product or Microsoft 365 subscription should be listed there. If it's not, your email address won't work for signing in to Office.

Step 2: Check for multiple copies of Office

Activation can fail if you have multiple copies of Office installed. Let's uninstall any versions of Office you aren't using before we continue to troubleshoot.

  1. Open Control Panel using the steps below for your operating system:

    • Windows 10 On the Windows 10 task bar, type Control Panel in the Type here to search box, select Control Panel in the search results, and then select Programs and Features.

    • Windows 8.1 or 8 Right-click the Start button Windows Start button in Windows 8 and Windows 10 (lower-left corner), select Control Panel, and then select Programs and Features.

    • Windows 7 Click Start > Control Panel > Uninstall a program.

  2. In the Search Programs and Features box (upper-right corner) of Programs and Features, search for the word office.

    You might see multiple versions installed, like this:

    Shows two copies of Office installed in Control Panel

    If more than one version appears, right-click the version you aren't using and select Uninstall.

    If only one version is listed, you can go to Step 3: Check your Microsoft 365 subscription status.

  3. When the uninstall is finished, restart your computer.

  4. Open an Office app and sign in, if prompted.

  5. If Office still won't activate, try running an online repair as described in Repair an Office application to fix up the remaining install of Office. If you still can't activate, proceed to the next step.

Step 3: Check your Microsoft 365 subscription status

If you have an Microsoft 365 for home subscription, let's make sure it's still active and renew your subscription, if necessary.

If you don't have Microsoft 365, you can skip to Step 4: Troubleshoot Office activation.

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. Go to your Services & subscriptions page.

  3. If prompted, choose Sign in and enter the Microsoft account email and password associated with your Microsoft 365 subscription.

  4. Review the details under the Subscriptions heading or Cancelled subscriptions heading.

    Shows an Office 365 subscription that has expired
  5. If your subscription has expired, you can renew it by following the steps in Renew Microsoft 365 Family.

  6. After you renew your subscription, you can restart your Office apps as needed. If Office still won't activate, continue to the next step

Step 4: Troubleshoot Office activation

Select your version of Office for troubleshooting steps:

Microsoft 365

Office 2019 and Office 2016

Office 2013

Microsoft 365: Use the Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant

The Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant runs on Windows PCs and can help you identify and fix activation issues with Microsoft 365.

  1. Select the Download button below.

    Select this button to download the Support and Recovery Assistant for Office 365
  2. Select your browser from the drop-down list to see how to save and then start the Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant.

    1. At the bottom of the browser window, select Save.

    2. In the next box that indicates SetupProd_Act.exe is finished downloading, select Run.

    1. At the bottom of the browser window, select Open to open MDaemon Email Server Pro Crack SetupProd_Act.exe file.

      If the file doesn’t open automatically, choose Save > Open Folder, and then double-click the file (it should start with "SetupProd_Act.exe").

    1. In the lower-lower left corner select the SetupProd_Act.exe file and from the drop down, select Show in folder.

      Double-click the download, SetupProd_Act.exe.

    1. Select Save File, and then OK.

      In the upper-right browser window, Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U Show all downloads. In the Library, select Downloads > SetupProd_Act.exe, and then select the folder icon. Double-click SetupProd_Act.exe.

  3. The Application Install dialog box opens. Select Install to start the installation.

  4. The Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant opens in a new window. Select I agree to accept the Microsoft Services Agreement.

  5. Select Yes to allow the app to make changes to your device.

  6. Follow the prompts to troubleshoot your Office activation issue.

If Office still won't activate after you run the Microsoft Support and Recovery Assistant, you can Fix Unlicensed Product errors yourself.

Fix Unlicensed Product errors yourself

If you've tried the earlier troubleshooting steps and Office is still unlicensed, you can troubleshoot activation failures yourself.

Check your computer's date, time, and time zone

If these settings aren't correct, Office activation might fail. Follow the steps below for your operating system.

Windows 10

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. In the bottom right-hand corner of your screen, select the date or time.

  3. Select Date and time settings.

  4. Select Set time automatically and, if shown, Set time zone automatically. If you don't have the option to set the time zone automatically, make sure your local time zone is shown in Time zone.

  5. Restart any Office app.

Windows 8 or Windows 8.1

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. In the bottom right-hand corner of your screen, select the date or time.

  3. Select Change date and time settings.

  4. If the date or time is wrong, select Change date and time and correct the date and time settings.

  5. If the time zone is wrong, select Change time zone and select your local time zone.

  6. Restart any Office app.

Windows 7

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. In the bottom right-hand corner of your screen, select the date or time.

  3. Select Change date and time settings.

  4. If the date or time is wrong, select Change date and time and correct the date and time settings.

  5. If the time zone is wrong, select Change time zone and select your local time zone.

  6. Restart any Office app.

Tip: In Windows 7, you can synchronize your computer clock with an Internet time server to keep the computer clock up to date. To do this, select the date or time in the bottom right-hand corner of your screen, and then select Change date and time settings. Select the Internet Time tab, select Change settings, select Synchronize with an Internet time server, and then select Update now.

Run Office as administrator

Running Office as administrator helps fix permission issues that might cause Office activation to fail. Follow the steps below for your operating system.

Windows 10

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. Press the Start button in the lower-left corner of your screen.

  3. Type an application name, like Word. The Word program icon appears in the search results.

  4. Right-click the Word icon, and select Run as administrator.

  5. Select Yes to allow Office to run as administrator.

Windows 8.1

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. In Windows 8.1, right-click the Start button in the lower-left corner of your screen, and then select Search.

  3. Type an application name, like Word. The Word program icon appears in the search results.

  4. Right-click the Word icon, and select Run as administrator.

  5. Select Yes to allow Office to run as administrator.

Windows 8

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. In Windows 8, Adobe InDesign 2021 Crack+ Keygen Code 2021 - Free Activators your mouse to the upper-right corner of your screen to open the charms bar, and then select the Search icon.

  3. Type an application name, like Word. The Word program icon appears in the search results.

  4. Right-click the Word icon, and select Run as administrator.

  5. Select Yes to allow Office to run as administrator.

Windows 7

  1. Close all Office apps.

  2. Press the Start button in the lower-left corner of your screen.

  3. In the Search programs and files box, type an application name, like Word. The Word program icon appears in the search results.

  4. Right-click the Excel icon, and select Run as administrator.

  5. If prompted, select Yes to allow Office to run as administrator.

Update Office

The latest Office updates might contain fixes to activation issues. To learn how to update Office, see Install Office updates.

Check your firewall

If you're using a firewall from another manufacturer, visit the manufacturer's website for information about how to temporarily disable the firewall. For Windows Firewall, please see below.

Windows 10

Windows 8.1 and 7

Check your antivirus software

For information about how to turn off your antivirus software, check your antivirus manufacturer's website. Uninstalling your antivirus software may also help. Don't xfer serum full 1.2.0b5 free download [win-osx] - Free Activators to reinstall it after Office is finished installing and if you turned it off, be sure to turn it on again.

If you're not sure which antivirus software you have, use the following instructions to get to Control Panel to find the name of your antivirus software.

Tip: Windows 10 comes with default antivirus software, Windows Defender. If you determine that you're using it, select the Start button > Settings > Update & Security, and then select Windows Defender on the left. Slide the button to Off. Remember to turn it On again.

  1. On the StartWindows Start button in Windows 8 and Windows 10 menu, enter Control Panel in the search box and select Control Panel from the results.

  2. Do one of the following:

    • In Category view, select System and Security > Security and Maintenance, and then select the down arrow next to Security.

    • In Large icons or Small icons view, select Security and Maintenance, and then select the down arrow next to Security.

If Windows can detect your antivirus software, it's listed under Virus protection.

  1. Go to the Control Panel by right-clicking the Start button Windows Start button in Windows 8 and Windows 10 (lower-left corner), and choosing Control Panel.

    Options and commands list see after pressing Windows logo key + X

  2. Do one of the following:

    • In Category view, select System and Security > Action Center, and then select the down arrow next to Security.

    • In Large icons or Small icons view, select Action Center, and then select the down arrow next to Security.

If Windows can detect your antivirus software, it's listed under Virus protection.

  1. Go to Control Panel by choosing the Start button Windows 7 Start button (lower-left corner), and choosing Control Panel.

  2. Do one of the following:

    • In Category view, select System and Security > Action Center, and then select the down arrow next to Security.

    • In Large icons or Small icons view, select Action Center, and then select the down arrow next to Security.

If Windows can detect your antivirus software, it's listed under Virus protection.

Check your proxy settings

If you use your device both at home and at work, try turning off the proxy settings in Microsoft Edge or Internet Explorer before you install Office. If you’re using a different browser, check their help to find out how to turn off proxy settings.

Microsoft Edge

  1. Click the Start button Windows Start button in Windows 8 and Windows 10 (lower-left corner), and choose Settings.

  2. Select Network & Internet, go to the bottom of the selections on the left side, and click Proxy.

  3. In Automatic proxy setup, automatically detect winsnap full - Free Activators or use setup script, by sliding to On or Off.

  4. In Manual proxy setup, you can choose to use a proxy server. Generally, it will be off and if you slide it to On, be sure to select Save. And if it was off by default before you turned it on, be sure to slide back to Off when you've finished using it.

Internet Explorer 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11

  1. In Internet Explorer, click Tools (upper-right corner) > Internet options.

  2. Click the Connections tab, and then click the LAN settings button.

  3. Under Proxy server, clear the option "Use a proxy server for your LAN (These settings will not apply to dial-up or VPN connections)."

  4. Click Apply and OK to save changes. Restart your computer.

Note: There might be more proxy settings that you need to bypass. If this doesn't work, and you’re installing Office from work or school, check with your IT department for more information. For IT administrators, please see Microsoft 365 URLs and IP address ranges.

Still need help? Contact Support

If you’ve tried everything in this article and still need help, you can contact Office support.


Mozilla Foundation Security Advisories

Impact key

  • Critical Vulnerability can be used to run attacker code and install software, requiring no user interaction beyond normal browsing.
  • High Vulnerability can be used to gather sensitive data from sites in other windows or inject data or code into those sites, requiring no more than normal browsing actions.
  • Moderate Vulnerabilities that would otherwise be High or Critical except they only work in uncommon non-default configurations or require the user to perform complicated and/or unlikely steps.
  • Low Minor security vulnerabilities such as Denial of Service attacks, minor data leaks, or spoofs. (Undetectable spoofs of SSL indicia would have "High" impact because those are generally used to steal sensitive data intended for other sites.)

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Firefox Keeps Crashing on Windows 10/11? How to fix it

Mozilla Firefox is one of the oldest and most trusted browsers for Windows 10 users. With millions of users, Firefox is reliable and one of the most useful browsers. But while sometimes it may work as expected, it is not uncommon for Firefox to present some problems when you try to use it. For Windows 10 users, one of the most problematic issues is when Firefox keeps crashing for no apparent reason. It can happen as soon as you turn on Firefox or when you open more than one tab on the browser.

It is important to note that this problem can occur for multiple different reasons and under different circumstances. Fortunately, there are several ways you can fix this problem once and for all and get Firefox working normally again.

Part 1: Why Does My Firefox Keep Crashing?

There are very many reasons why Firefox may be crashing on Windows 10. Some of the most common include the following;

  • The Firefox browser could be outdated and may need an update
  • It is also possible that the version of Windows 10 you are running is not up to dare
  • Mismatched cache and other conflicts of settings can cause Firefox to crash
  • When Firefox is incorrectly installed, it can also crash from time to time
  • Broken add-ons and extensions are also a major issue

Part 2: How Do I Stop Firefox from Crashing?

Just as there are varied causes of this problem, there are also a lot of different solutions that you can try. The following are some of the most effective;

Method 1: Update Firefox

Having the latest version of Firefox is one of the best ways to prevent this problem from recurring. Therefore the first thing you want to do is to check if you are running the latest version of Firefox. Follow these simple steps to do it;

Step 1: Open the Firefox browser on DVDFab Player Ultra Crack + Activation Code Free Download 2021 computer and then click on the browser's menu. Select "Help" from the options presented and then choose "About Firefox"

Step 2: A new window will open and begin looking for available updates for Firefox. If an update is available, Firefox will download and install it immediately.

Step 3: Once the update process is complete, click on the "Restart to Update Firefox" button to complete the process.

Method 2: Clear Firefox Cache

The cache is data that Firefox and other browsers may save on your system to help websites load faster. But when the cache is corrupted it can have the opposite effect, even causing the browser itself to crash at inopportune moments. In this case, the best way to fix the problem is to clear the cache on the browser. Here's how to do it;

Step 1: Open Firefox on your computer and then click on the menu button (the three lines on the top left corner)

Step 2: Select "History" in the options presented to open a side menu with more options. In these options, click on "Clear Recent History"

Step 3: Click on the "Time Range to Clear" drop-down menu and then select "Everything"

Step 4: Select the data and items you would like to clear and then click on "Clean Now"

firefox keeps crashing windows 1

Restart Firefox when the process is complete to see if the problem is gone.

Method 3: Disable Firefox Add-Ons

Sometimes broken add-ons and extensions could be causing the problem and it may be a good idea to disable some of these add-ons and extensions to keep them from affecting the browser. Follow these simple steps to disable Firefox add-ons;

Step 1: Open Firefox on your computer and then click on the menu icon (three lines)

Step 2: Click on "Help"

Step 3: Select "Restart with Add-Ons Disabled" and then click "Restart" in the dialogue box that appears.

firefox keeps crashing windows 2

Method 4: Check for Viruses

Viruses and malware can also be a major cause of a crashing Firefox. The same Tenorshare 4uKey Crack + Registration Code [Latest 2021] true for any software that may be incompatible with Firefox. If the problem began soon after you installed a certain program, then it is likely that the newly installed program could be incompatible with Firefox and may need to be uninstalled.

It is also important to run a full system check for your PC using powerful antivirus software. There are a lot of third-party antivirus programs you can use but you can also use Windows 10 Defender to scan your system.

Method 5: Update your Drivers

Sometimes the problem is not with Firefox but with the drivers on your computer. Therefore, updating the drivers could help keep Firefox from crashing. To update drivers on your Windows 10 system, follow these simple steps;

Step 1: Press the Windows Key + R on your keyboard to open the Run dialogue

Step 2: Type in "devmgmt.msc" into the dialogue box and then press "Enter". This will open the Device Manager.

Step 3: You should see a list of all the devices on your device. Any devices that need a critical update will be marked with a yellow exclamation mark.

Step 4: if you don't see any critical updates, locate the most important drivers, necessary to keep your computer running normally. Right-click on the device and then select "Update Driver"

firefox keeps crashing windows 3

Step 5: Follow the on-screen instructions and when the update is complete, restart the computer to finish the process. Moreover, you can also learn how to fix the Chrome keeps crashing issue.

Part 3: How Do I View a Firefox Crash Report?

After implementing some or all of the solutions above, you may want to check the crash reports to determine if the problem has gone away. Thankfully checking crash reports on Firefox is very easy; just open Firefox and then type in "about crashes" in the address bar. Press "Enter" and the crash report will appear.

firefox keeps crashing windows 4

Click on "View" next to the crash report you would like to open to see the crash report.

Part 4: Bonus Tips: Recover Lost Data from PC with Recoverit

Problems like a crashing Firefox can cause data loss on Windows 10. If this happens, you need a swift and reliable solution that will help you recover the missing data. One of the best data recovery tools to use in such a situation is Recoverit Data Recovery. It is fast and highly effective, with one of the highest recovery rates in the business. The following are some of its other most notable features;

deleted data recovery

Recoverit Data Recovery - The Best File Recovery Software

  • It can be used to recover more than 1000 different types of data in all formats
  • It is also useful for the recover data from all types of storage from hard drives, external drives, and even RAID arrays
  • It will also recover the data regardless of the circumstances under which the data was lost in the first place
  • It is very easy to use, allowing you to recover your data in three simple steps and just a few minutes.

Here's how to use Recoverit Data Recovery to recover the missing data;

Step 1: Launch the Program

Download and install the program on your computer. After a successful installation, you can double-click on the program's icon to open it.

Step 2: Select the Location of Drive

In the main window, select the computer's "Hard Drive" as the location of the missing data and click on "Start"

recoverit interface

Step 3: Scan the Selected Location

As soon as you click "Start" the program will begin scanning the drive for the missing data. The scanning process may take a long time if you have too many files on the drive.

But keep in mind that should you see the missing data appear on the screen during the scan, you can click on the "Pause" or "Stop" button at the top of the window to end the process.

operations during scanning

Step 4: Preview and Recover the Data

When the process is complete, you can click on a file to open a Firefox 2020 - Crack Key For U preview popup to view the recovered file. Click on "Recover" to save the recovered files to the computer.

preview recovered photos

Firefox has been known to crash on Windows 10 from time to time and although it can be quite problematic, the problem does have easy solutions. Try one or more of the solutions above and let us know in the comments section if the solution worked.


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