Authoring Related  - Crack Key For U

This statement applies to the interactions Microsoft has with you and the Our automated methods often are related to and supported by our manual methods. Once you finish prewriting, you are ready to write your paragraph. These writing activities will help you create a topic sentence, body sentences. Generally, anything under 12 characters is vulnerable to being cracked. If you stay on the line, you will be connected to a real person who will do what.

Authoring Related - Crack Key For U -

List of available regions

Every week, our researchers round up the latest security news and report our findings in these blog pages. If you’ve been reading, you may have noticed a particularly nasty trend claiming new victims week after week — data breaches. In the last two months alone, we’ve reported on Carnival Cruises, ProctorU and Garmin. And that’s only some of them.

Your passwords grant access into your own personal kingdom, so you are probably thinking 'what are the best practices to create a strong password' to protect your accounts against these cybercriminals. If your passwords were part of a breach, you will want to change them immediately.

So, what's the solution? Uncrackable passwords. But before jumping to that, let’s first take a look at the various ways passwords can be hacked, so that you understand the most common methods being used today.

How does a password get hacked?

Cybercriminals have several password-hacking tactics at their disposal, but the easiest one is simply to buy your passwords off the dark web. There’s big money in the buying and selling of login credentials and passwords on the blackmarket, and if you’ve been using the same password for many years, chances are it’s been compromised.

But if you’ve been wise enough to keep your passwords off the aggregated blackmarket lists, cybercriminals have to crack them. And if that’s the case, they’re bound to use one of the methods below. These attacks can be aimed at your actual accounts or possibly at a leaked database of hashed passwords.

Brute force attack

This attack tries to guess every combination in the book until it hits on yours. The attacker automates software to try as many combinations as possible in as quick a time as possible, and there has been some unfortunate headway in the evolution of that tech. In 2012, an industrious hacker unveiled a 25-GPU cluster he had programmed to crack any 8-character Windows password containing uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols in less than six hours. It has the ability to try 350 billion guesses per second. Generally, anything under 12 characters is vulnerable to being cracked. If nothing else, we learn from brute force attacks that password length is very important. The longer, the better.

Dictionary attack

This attack is exactly what it sounds like — the hacker is essentially attacking you with a dictionary. Whereas a brute force attack tries every combination of symbols, numbers, and letters, a dictionary attack tries a prearranged list of words such as you’d find in a dictionary.

If your password is indeed a regular word, you’ll only survive a dictionary attack if your word is wildy uncommon or if you use multiple word phrases, like LaundryZebraTowelBlue. These multiple word phrase passwords outsmart a dictionary attack, which reduces the possible number of variations to the number of words we might use to the exponential power of the number of words we’re using, as explained in the “How to Choose a Password” video by Computerphile.

Phishing

That most loathsome of tactics — phishing — is when cybercriminals try to trick, intimidate, or pressure you through social engineering into unwittingly doing what they want. A phishing email may tell you (falsely) that there’s something wrong with your credit card account. It will direct you to click a link, which takes you to a phony website built to resemble your credit card company. The scammers stand by with bated breath, hoping the ruse is working and that you’ll now enter your password. Once you do, they have it.

Phishing scams can try to ensnare you through phone calls too. Be leery of any robocall you get claiming to be about your credit card account. Notice the recorded greeting doesn’t specify which credit card it’s calling about. It’s a sort of test to see if you hang up right away or if they’ve got you “hooked.” If you stay on the line, you will be connected to a real person who will do what they can to wheedle as much sensitive data out of you as possible, including your passwords.

The anatomy of a strong password

Now that we know how passwords are hacked, we can create strong passwords that outsmart each attack (though the way to outsmart a phishing scam is simply not to fall for it). Your password is on its way to being uncrackable if it follows these three basic rules.

Don’t be silly

Stay away from the obvious. Never use sequential numbers or letters, and for the love of all things cyber, do not use “password” as your password. Come up with unique passwords that do not include any personal info such as your name or date of birth. If you’re being specifically targeted for a password hack, the hacker will put everything they know about you in their guess attempts.

Avoid these top 10 weak passwords

Can it be brute force attacked?

Keeping in mind the nature of a brute force attack, you can take specific steps to keep the brutes at bay:

  • Make it long. This is the most critical factor. Choose nothing shorter than 15 characters, more if possible.
  • Use a mix of characters. The more you mix up letters (upper-case and lower-case), numbers, and symbols, the more potent your password is, and the harder it is for a brute force attack to crack it.
  • Avoid common substitutions. Password crackers are hip to the usual substitutions. Whether you use DOORBELL or D00R8377, the brute force attacker will crack it with equal ease. These days, random character placement is much more effective than common leetspeak* substitutions. (*leetspeak definition: an informal language or code used on the Internet, in which standard letters are often replaced by numerals or special characters.)
  • Don’t use memorable keyboard paths. Much like the advice above not to use sequential letters and numbers, do not use sequential keyboard paths either (like qwerty). These are among the first to be guessed.

Can it be dictionary attacked?

The key to staving off this type of attack is to ensure the password is not just a single word. Multiple words will confuse this tactic — remember, these attacks reduce the possible number of guesses to the number of words we might use to the exponential power of the number of words we are using, as explained in the popular XKCD post on this topic.

The best password methods (and great password examples)

At Avast, we know a thing or two about cybersecurity. We know what makes a solid password, and we have our favorite methods to create them. The methods below give you some good password ideas to create your own strong, memorable passwords.  Follow one of these handy tips, and you’ll be doubling down on protecting your digital world.

The revised passphrase method

This is the multiple word phrase method with a twist — choose bizarre and uncommon words. Use proper nouns, the names of local businesses, historical figures, any words you know in another language, etc. A hacker might guess Quagmire, but he or she would find it ridiculously challenging to try to guess a good password example like this:

QuagmireHancockMerciDeNada

While the words should be uncommon, try to compose a phrase that gives you a mental image. This will help you remember.

To crank it up another notch in complexity, you can add random characters in the middle of your words or between the words. Just avoid underscores between words and any common leetspeak* substitutions. (*leetspeak: an informal language or code used on the Internet, in which standard letters are often replaced by numerals or special characters.)

The sentence method

This method is also described as the "Bruce Schneier Method." The idea is to think of a random sentence and transform it into a password using a rule. For example, taking the first two letters of every word in “The Old Duke is my favorite pub in South London” would give you:

ThOlDuismyfapuinSoLo

To anyone else, it’s gobbledygook, but to you it makes perfect sense. Make sure the sentence you choose is as personal and unguessable as possible.

Recommended ways to improve your password portfolio

All of the above methods help to strengthen your passwords but aren’t very workable, given that the average person uses dozens of them. Let’s review a few ways we recommend: use new complex passwords and a password manager, install an authenticator app on your smartphone, and purchase new hardware. Each of these can help with better and more secure authentications. 

Use a password manager and a random password generator 

A password manager keeps track of all of your passwords and does all the remembering for you, except for one thing — the master password which grants you access to your password manager. For that big kahuna, we encourage you to use every tip and trick listed above.The programs also come with generators, such as the Avast Random Password Generator shown below, so you can create super-complicated, extra-long passwords that are infinitely more difficult to crack than any passwords a human might come up with. PC Magazine has a series of recommendations of password managers here. 

Test your email address, too

Check the Avast Hack Check site to see if your password has been leaked in previous data breaches. If it has, change your password on your email account immediately.

Sample test using Avast Hack Check showing that the email “test@gmail.com” has been compromised in a previous data breach.

Be careful who you trust

Security-conscious websites will hash its users’ passwords so that even if the data gets out, the actual passwords are encrypted. But other websites don’t bother with that step. Before starting up accounts, creating passwords, and entrusting a website with sensitive info, take a moment to assess the site. Does it have https in the address bar, ensuring a secure connection? Do you get the sense it is up on the newest security standards of the day? If not, think twice about sharing any personal data with it.

Use multi-factor authentication

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) adds an extra layer of protection (which becomes your first layer of protection should your account details ever get leaked). These have become the new industry standard for effective security. In our blog post here, we explain how they are used and how you can add MFA to common social accounts such as Twitter and Facebook. They require something in addition to a password, such as biometrics (fingerprint, eye scan, etc.), or a physical token. This way, as simple or complex as your password is, it’s only half of the puzzle.  

Further reading: How to use multi-factor authentication for safer apps

Note: given the 2018 Reddit hack caused by SMS-intercepts, we do not recommend using SMS as your second factor of authentication. This is a well-trod path by many hackers in the past few years. 

Use an authenticator smartphone app

The best MFA method is to use a specialized app for your smartphone. Google’s Authenticator (for Apple here, for Android here) and Authy are two examples and both are free. The app generates a one-time PIN that you enter as the additional factor during your login process. The PINs automatically change every 30 seconds. You’ll need to follow the instructions to set up MFA for your particular application and some applications don’t yet support this MFA method.

Security keys and the FIDO alliance

Security keys take security to the next level.  A security key like the YubiKey (named for “ubiquitous key”) gives you the most state-of-the-art protection available today. It serves as your MFA, granting you file access only if you physically have the key. Security keys are available in USB, NFC, or Bluetooth versions, and they are generally about the size of a thumb drive. In 2017, Google mandated all of its employees to begin using security keys, and the company claims it has not experienced a single data breach among its 85,000 workers since. They have their own product called the Titan Security Key, designed specifically to protect people against phishing attacks.

For MFA and security keys: check out the FIDO alliance, which is working on creating strong authentication standards for desktop and mobile apps. If you’re as concerned about online security as we are, you want only to use FIDO-compliant services such as Microsoft, Google, PayPal, Bank of America, NTTDocomo, and DropBox, to name a few. When a certain security key, website, mobile app, etc. is “FIDO® Certified,” it satisfies the alliance’s high standard of authentication and protection.

In the early days of practical thought, Socrates doled out the sophisticated advice: Know thyself. We’re going to borrow from his book, upgrade the advice by a couple thousand years, and encourage all of you to do that which is absolutely essential today: Secure thyself.

Additional security tips surrounding passwords

Protect your login information further with these common sense, high-security tips:

  • Use a VPN when on public Wi-Fi. That way, when you log into accounts, no one is intercepting your username and password.

  • Never text or email anyone your password.

  • When selecting security questions while creating an account, choose hard-to-guess options to which only you know the answer.  Many questions have easy-to-find answers in social channels with a simple search, so beware and choose carefully.  

  • When you’re done, take the time to tell your family and friends to protect themselves too. Breaches continue to happen, so just by sharing this blog post with friends and family, you will be helping your inner circle to protect themselves.

  • Make sure your antivirus is up-to-date. (Don't have one? Try Avast Free Antivirus.) If a threat somehow gets past your strong defenses and into your system, a good antivirus will detect and neutralize it.
Источник: https://blog.avast.com/strong-password-ideas

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With so many SAT prep books to choose from, how can you tell the good ones from the bad ones? Well, not to worry because we've evaluated SAT books for you! This fully updated guide gives you ourrecommendations for the top 11 SAT preparation books to help you achieve the scores you want.

To best outline the differences, I've divided the books into four main sections:

Before jumping into our SAT book recommendations, though, allow me to give you a word about my perspective.

 

Disclaimer: Why Am I Recommending SAT Books?

You're probably wondering why PrepScholar, known for its online SAT prep program, is going old school and recommending an SAT book list.

As SAT experts who have made it our mission to understand the test and help students succeed, we are dedicated to providing you with the best resources to achieve both your academic and personal goals. If you're self-motivated and prefer using SAT books in your prep, then they can be a great way to learn content, practice strategies, and try out sample questions.

That being said, all the SAT prep books recommended below have strengths and weaknesses. Several of them seem as if they were rushed to publication, while others unfortunately don't offer the same level of quality that they did in previous versions.

I believe PrepScholar has managed to integrate the best parts of these books into its online prep program while adding the helpful element of accountability. We help you plan out and stick to your study schedule, keep track of your progress, and hone the specific skills and practice problem types you need most in order to improve your scores.

With prep books, you can try to customize your study plan to your specific needs too—but with PrepScholar, we do all that heavy lifting for you. Plus, considering the huge gains you can get from it, it's much more cost effective than buying all these books!

Since we're not necessarily benefiting from these SAT book recommendations, you can trust that our advice is neutral, objective, and based on both our and students' real experiences with these SAT preparation books.

Now that we've got all that out of the way, let's move on to our list of SAT books. Because the best representation of SAT questions always come from the test makers themselves, I'll be starting this list with the College Board's Official SAT Study Guide.

 

The College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2020 Edition

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Price:About $20 on Amazon

In past years, I told students that the College Board's SAT guide was the number one, critical book they had to have in their study arsenal. Now, I'm saying pretty much the opposite—don't bother! Why? Because you can find all of its material for free online.

In a helpful move, the College Board has asserted its commitment to transparency by providing free online SAT practice materials (they're also strongly promoting their partnership with Khan Academy, which offers useful video explanations to go along with official SAT questions).

Some students and educators were disappointed to buy The Official Study Guide book only to find that its practice tests were the same exact ones offered online.

So does this book offer anything beyond SAT practice tests? It does dedicate a bunch of pages to explaining the test structure, basic strategies, and answer explanations. Since you can find the majority of this info online, though, I don't recommend buying the official guide unless you really want all the material printed out for you.

If you have access to a printer and a working internet connection, I'd say to take advantage of the free online material and learn about the SAT that way. The total number of tests is still limited, so you might space out these SAT practice tests throughout your prep as a way to gauge your progress and determine what concepts you need to study most.

In between these tests, you can supplement with questions from other books on this list. Read on for the pros and cons of the best overall SAT prep book, along with the best books by SAT section.

 

Best Overall SAT Prep Book: Kallis' SAT Pattern Strategy

Kallis

Price:About $33 on Amazon

Students and educators alike have reported having great experiences with Kallis' Redesigned SAT Pattern Strategy book. This book provides six full-length practice tests, adding up to around 24 hours of practice testing.

 

Pros

  • The SAT questions are generally realistic and closely mimic official test questions.
  • Kallis goes beyond the official guide's simple explanations to give step-by-step answer explanations for each question. These in-depth descriptions help you understand any mistakes and fix them for next time—a key strategy for improving your scores.
  • The book discusses 101 topics you'll find on the SAT and offers a clear, focused presentation of fundamental concepts in grammar, literature, and math. Beyond content review, this book gives some analysis of the various question types, allowing you to take a more strategic approach to your prep.
  • Kallis goes over the structure, format, and topics covered on the SAT in detail, so you'll have a strong grasp of logistics before test day. This review will save you time in having to read any instructions and pace yourself since you'll know exactly what to expect on the SAT.

 

Cons

  • While this book does a good job providing realistic practice questions and content review, it's less helpful for learning key SAT strategies, such as time management and the process of elimination. Because this book emphasizes a "learning by doing" approach, it doesn't spend a lot of time going over mindset and critical test-taking strategies.
  • This book is relatively expensive at over $30 on Amazon (although you can get a used version for about half that price).
  • It requires a lot of independence and self-discipline. You'll need to take responsibility for dividing up the material in the most effective way and designing and sticking to a productive study plan. While the practice questions are there, it's up to you to put in the work and make the most out of them.

 

Best Traditional SAT Prep Books for Instruction, Strategy, and Practice Questions

The following SAT prep books are of decent quality but have some serious weaknesses as well. The following four books are the best currently available for content review and practice problems. Let's go over the pros and cons of each.

 

SAT Prep Black Book, 2nd Edition

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Price:About $28 on Amazon

I highly recommend SAT Prep Black Book for its insightful strategies and test advice. The SAT Black Book, as it's called, was written by Mike Barrett, who's taken the time to understand the test inside and out. In it, he goes over the different types of questions and introduces critical tips, such as how to recognize tricky wording and "distractor" answer choices.

 

Pros

  • This book is excellent for students who want to learn about the structure, format, and tricks of the SAT, and for those who want to gain practical strategies when it comes to answering questions and saving time.
  • It can be useful for students of all levels, since Barrett customizes his advice depending on your target score.
  • It provides thorough answer explanations for questions on the first four official SAT practice tests. Where the College Board fails to walk you through the steps of a practice problem or explain why other answer choices are incorrect, this book guides you through each question on each practice test in detail.
  • It can help change your mindset when actually taking the SAT. You can incorporate the book's explanations and strategies into your own approach so that you're more confident when answering each question type. While the Black Book is great for strategy, though, it's less helpful for studying concepts.

 

Cons

  • It doesn't have any of its own SAT practice questions. Instead, the book must be used in conjunction with the official SAT practice tests. It refers directly to official SAT questions and gives thorough explanations, especially for the hardest questions.
  • The Black Book focuses on strategy and understanding the SAT, so it's not the strongest resource for reviewing concepts and content. If you're looking to completely relearn sentence parallelism or linear functions, for instance, you'd need an additional resource.
  • Although I find this book to be written in a pretty engaging style, this is entirely a matter of opinion; in other words, Barrett's explanation style and test strategies might not work for everyone.

 

McGraw-Hill Education SAT Elite 2022

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Price:About $24 on Amazon

If you're looking for an informative overview of the structure and content of the SAT, then McGraw-Hill Education SAT Elite 2022 is a decent choice. At more than 950 pages long, this massive book goes over the SAT in great detail, from the number of questions to the time limits on each section, so you can know exactly what to expect on test day.

 

Pros

  • It contains eight full-length SAT practice tests, including one diagnostic test. Five of the tests are in the book, and three are online. These are all fairly realistic and include thorough answer explanations for each question.
  • The book's practice questions are realistic and resemble official questions. Specifically, the Math questions feature real-world scenarios you'd likely see on the SAT, with problems revolving around topics such as temperature and selling tickets for a performance.
  • The book is extremely strong in its presentation of SAT Math concepts. It breaks down all the major topics in detail, from expressions and linear systems to less commonly tested ideas such as geometry, basic trig, and complex numbers.
  • It gives you helpful guidance when it comes to mapping out your SAT study plan. Similar to our own SAT prep program, this book suggests beginning your prep with a diagnostic SAT practice test and using it to shape your study plan. It also offers some crucial strategies, such as improving your calculator fluency so you know when it'll be useful and when it'll just slow you down

 

Cons

  • It's weak in reviewing Reading and Writing. While the book goes over the Math section in detail, its presentation of the two verbal sections is more limited and even a little unusual. Its review of the sections is more conceptual and experimental than it is specific to the SAT. For instance, the book features chapters with titles like "Language of Truth, Truthfulness, and Beauty" and the "Language of Dissent, Criticism, and Rebellion." While these sections might sound interesting to book lovers, they aren't really relevant to the SAT—a feature I consider critical when prepping for this unique, idiosyncratic test.

 

Barron's SAT, 29th Edition

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Price:$27 on Amazon

Barron's SAT, 29th Edition is another thorough prep book that offers ample content review, sample questions, and SAT practice tests.

 

Pros

  • The book contains four full-length practice tests, in addition to access to two more full-length online practice test. This gives you tons of opportunities to practice.
  • It offers a diagnostic test, a helpful tool to familiarize you with the SAT, get you into a testing mindset, and help you note any weaknesses you'll need to address moving forward.
  • Barron's is very comprehensive and covers most of the topics you need to know for the SAT. Because of its dense format, it's typically more effective for high scorers who can engage quickly with the content and maintain focus throughout. If you can divide up and scaffold the material in a manageable way, there's no doubt you'll gain some valuable practice with this SAT prep book.

 

Cons

  • Barron's has been criticized for recycling practice questions from its old books rather than creating new SAT content, and this problem remains in this edition as well. Simply reusing old questions won't give you a realistic sense of the question types and concepts on the SAT. This book appears especially guilty of this in its math sections, where it also lacks sufficient focus on algebra—a major component of the test.
  • Some of the questions are overly confusing and havecomplicated wording. By contrast, real SAT test questions call for in-depth reasoning skills while using relatively straightforward wording. Therefore, the questions you'll get in Barron's, while helpful, might ultimately be too hard and not as useful as they could be for your test prep.

 

The Princeton Review's Cracking the SAT, 2020 Edition

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Price:About $20 on Amazon (and $3 for the premium edition)

Similar to Barron's, The Princeton Review's Cracking the SAT, 2020 Edition prep book provides a comprehensive review of the SAT, covering concepts you need to know, such as grammar rules and algebraic functions, along with strategies for approaching the test questions and managing your time.

 

Pros

  • It contains four full-length practice tests and one additional practice test you can access online (or, if you get the premium version, you'll have access to three more online, giving you a total of eight practice tests!).
  • The book offers thorough answer explanations for practice questions, which help you think about how you can approach similar questions in the future and on test day.
  • There's an online component that helps you score your practice tests.

 

Cons

  • The Princeton Review shares one of Barron's biggest drawbacks: some of its questions have overly elaborate wording and therefore don't match the straightforward style of official SAT questions that well. While the practice tests are helpful, they're not the best representation of SAT questions.
  • Some of the book's content review and questions are too conceptually easy. While Barron's might be better for especially motivated students aiming for top scores, this book is probably more appropriate for students scoring around or below 600 on a test section. Don't expect to have this book help you score much beyond this range.
  • It doesn't break each content area down into as many subtopics as it could, so there's a lack of detail when it comes to certain subject areas.
  • Its style might not be for everyone. This book is a big, traditional test SAT prep book with a straightforward approach. While some students might appreciate or prefer this, others might find it boring and dull.

 

All the SAT prep books mentioned above have both strengths and weaknesses. Combined, though, they provide relatively comprehensive prep in all major areas: practice questions, content review, and strategies.

If you're looking to focus even more on a particular SAT section, you'll likely benefit from a subject-specific SAT prep book. The following books are my top recommendations for SAT Math, Reading, and Writing.

 

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Unlike his couches, this frog prefers his SAT prep one section at a time.

 

Best Books for SAT Math

Books that focus on a single SAT subject often provide especially in-depth prep. Plus, they can be easier to approach than the huge comprehensive test prep books. If you need more prep in one section than the others or are taking advantage of your colleges' superscoring policies by building up your SAT scores one section at a time, then these books could be great resources.

We'll start with my recommendations for Math prep books, starting with Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems.

 

Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems

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Price:About $40 on Amazon

Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems is his most recent in SAT Math preparation. He discusses each area on the test: Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Geometry and Complex Numbers (the College Board calls this last topic Additional Topics).

 

Pros

  • Just like with his last series, Dr. Warner offers comprehensive and clear content review and instruction.
  • This book helpfully arranges SAT math concepts by difficulty, with the easiest being Level 1 and the most advanced being Level 5. This organization ensures that math problems from all the different content areas are integrated; it also allows you to focus on certain chapters depending on your own level. Students already scoring in the 700s, for instance, will benefit the most from studying Level 4 and 5 concepts and problems.
  • Each lesson in this book is carefully crafted, and practice problems are realistic,helping to reinforce your understanding.
  • Answer explanations are clear and go over some different approaches you can take when solving a problem. As mentioned above, these kinds of multifaceted explanations appeal to different kinds of learners and allow you to carefully understand your mistakes and fix them for next time.

 

Cons

  • While it's perhaps unfair to compare this book with its predecessors (which focused on the old version of the SAT), I can't help but find it a little limited. The book could be a better resource if it broke down each content area into smaller, more specific subtopics.

  • At $40, it's also quite an investment for a book that only covers on subject of the SAT.

 

Dr. Jang's SAT 800 Math Workbook New Edition

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Price:About $24 on Amazon

At more than 400 pages long, Dr. Jang's SAT 800 Math Workbook for the New SAT is a great (and hefty) math prep book to add to your SAT book collection.

 

Pros

  • By far, this book's most impressive strength is its sheer number of math practice problems—more than 1,500 of them! It definitely allows for a "learning by doing" approach, as you can time yourself and answer practice questions for days on end.
  • Question types are arranged by difficulty level, so you can break them up and customize your math practice depending on your needs. You might start with Dr. Jang's diagnostic test and then space out the book's 10 sample tests as you prep.
  • Dr. Jang's SAT math problems are generally realistic examples of what you'll see on the SAT. The book emphasizes algebra, includes basic trigonometry, and divides questions into non-calculator and calculator sections (just like the actual SAT does). It also offers a strong representation of the concepts, format, and rules you'll encounter on the SAT Math section.

 

Cons

  • This book is like the flipped version of Dr. Warner's book above—lots of practice problems but not a ton of content review. For more instruction, as well as strategies and detailed explanations, you'll need to supplement this workbook with another resource.
  • It has some occasional typos, which can detract from your prep.
  • It doesn't include many test-taking strategies, such as time management. This book has lots of practice problems that appeal to students of all levels, but it's probably not sufficient on its own to prep you for all aspects of SAT Math.

 

PWN The SAT: Math Guide, 4th Edition

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Price:About $30 on Amazon

PWN the SATtargets high-achieving, motivated students who are aiming for a top score in SAT Math. The book contains five main sections: Techniques, Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Additional Topics in Math. Each category is broken down into its component concepts to teach you the fundamentals tested on SAT Math.

 

Pros

  • The book is written in an engaging, irreverent style, which can help students stay engaged with the material.
  • It has realistic practice math problems, both Calculator and No Calculator, to help you get ready for both question types. Each chapter also provides a list of official questions of a certain type to help you drill specific skills.
  • You can register on the PWN SAT website to get bonus material and watch video answer explanations that walk you step by step through the practice problems.

 

Cons

  • Its target audience is limited. While this book will help top scorers with strong math skills, it won't be as accessible to students who struggle with math. If you want to focus on gaining foundational knowledge, PWN the SAT isn't the book for you.

 

Although there are works by several different authors to choose from to maximize your SAT Math score, I just have one author recommendation to boost your SAT Reading and Writing score: Erica Meltzer.

 

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Quick coffee break, and then it's on to SAT Reading and Writing.

 

Best Books for SAT Reading and Writing

If you're looking to brush up your reading comprehension skills or knowledge of grammar rules, I recommend Erica Meltzer's books on the Reading and Writing sections of the SAT.

 

The Critical Reader: The Complete Guide to SAT Reading, 3rd Edition

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Price:About $33 on Amazon

While studying for the SAT Reading section might seem hard to break down into specific parts, Erica Meltzer's Complete Guide to SAT Reading does a good job outlining the skills you'll need.

 

Pros

  • It offers helpful strategies for answering questions. While your English class might leave more room for subjective interpretation, the SAT Reading section does not. This book helps you locate the one unambiguously correct answer on reading comprehension questions.
  • In addition to time management and reading comprehension techniques, this book teaches you how to locate and identify key information both quickly and efficiently. It provides useful strategies for approaching paired supporting evidence and data interpretation questions, many of which require you to read tables or graphs.
  • It has a list of common, multiple-meaning words with their various definitions alongside strategies for how to use context clues to uncover the meanings of words and phrases.
  • It's full of high-quality questions and passages that resemble what you'll see on the SAT, including passages from US/world literature, history/social studies, and science. It also incorporates questions from the College Board and Khan Academy so you can match up concepts with relevant official sample questions.

 

Cons

  • Not all students are fans of the overall layout and formatting of the book, which has small, crowded font and isn't very creative or engaging.
  • The writing style is all to the point. Some people appreciate this for its directness; other students find it dry. You can learn more about it at Meltzer's blog, The Critical Reader, and see how it suits you.
  • It's a relatively expensive book considering it only covers one section of the SAT.

 

The Critical Reader: The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar, 4th Edition

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Price:About $31 on Amazon

Erica Meltzer's Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar clearly articulates the important grammar rules you'll need to know for the SAT Writing section and does a fantastic job getting you used to how the section will look and what kinds of questions you'll be asked on test day.

 

Pros

  • The questions are realistic and resemble those on the SAT Writing section. Like questions on the SAT, they are all connected to the context of a longer passage.
  • It breaks down critical skills and grammar rules so you can study them individually. By learning the rules of grammar and usage, you'll be able to apply them to practice problems. Rather than just choosing an answer that sounds right, Meltzer's book will teach you all the rules you absolutely must know to get a good SAT Writing score.

 

Cons

  • While this book is helpful in the way it breaks the section down by skill and grammar rule, the questions on the real SAT will be in random order. This resource is useful for learning and drilling the rules, but you also want to take practice tests to make sure you can easily identify the grammar rule, even when it's not clearly laid out and labeled for you.
  • There isn't a frequency guide, so it's hard to know which rules to prioritize over others.
  • It's written in a similar style to her SAT Reading book, which some students might find dry.
  • Like Meltzer's SAT Reading book, it's somewhat costly at around $30.

 

This concludes our list of the best SAT prep books. Now, since this guide is meant to help you streamline your studying, let's discuss how you can best use these books to prep for the SAT and achieve your target scores.

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Key Tips for Studying With SAT Prep Books

There are a lot of options when it comes to studying for the SAT from books. Rather than reading them cover to cover, you would be better served coming up with a plan and breaking each book down into smaller, manageable goals.

I recommend using an official College Board practice test to give yourself a pre-test and gain a sense of your starting level, or baseline score. Use its answer key to score it and then analyze your results to determine what areas of the test you need to focus on in your prep.

You could also save one of the tests to take right before you take the official SAT so you can gain a sense of how much you've improved. As mentioned, the other tests could be used as benchmarks along the way to gauge your progress and re-adjust your study plan if needed.

A comprehensive book such as Kallis' or Barron's could be used alongside a subject-specific book, such as Steve Warner's Math book and Erica Meltzer's Reading and Writing guides. Depending on your goals and needs, you can decide how much time to devote to each subject to get the most out of your studying.

There's a lot of room here to customize your study plan to your own strengths, weaknesses, and goals. This requires a good deal of planning and self-discipline to actually stick to your plan. You'll also benefit from reflecting on what works best for you in terms of maintaining interest, retaining information, and staying organized.

If this sounds like a lot of "study prep" before you even get to your test prep, you might benefit from exploring SAT prep options beyond using an SAT book list.

 

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Time to explore!

 

Final Tip: Explore Your SAT Prep Options

The SAT is a unique test. Doing well in math and English class doesn't necessarily guarantee you a high score on SAT Math or Reading. Prep is a critical component of getting a high score for most students, which the College Board is finally acknowledging with its efforts to provide free online practice materials.

Since you probably don't have time to waste, you want to make the most of your prep time. If you're taking time out of your schedule to study, you should see results.

PrepScholar's online SAT program was developed with these goals in mind. It retains the quality of content review, practical strategies, and SAT practice questions while adding those elements of accountability and customization. It also ensures you're getting the most out of your prep and aren't wasting time on material you already know or that won't help you on the SAT.

With that same goal in mind, we've made available a number of in-depth strategy guides for the SAT, which we're adding to all the time. Here are some of our most popular guides:

The recommended SAT prep books can be very useful in getting you ready, but they can also feel overwhelming and repetitive, not to mention expensive.

Take the time to explore your options while also learning about the SAT from high-quality online resources and our detailed guides. If you're putting in the time to prep for the SAT, make sure that you're seeing results and enjoying the process along the way!

 

What's Next?

Before delving into content and strategies, you should familiarize yourself with exactly what's on the SAT. Learn all about the Reading, Writing, and Math sections in our individual guides. Also, read our complete guide to the SAT to learn more about the test overall.

An important part of your study schedule is knowing exactly when you plan to take the SAT. Read all about how to choose your test dates.

Did you know a lot of colleges superscore the SAT, meaning they take your highest section scores across all dates? Learn how you can use this policy to your advantage and build up your scores across different test dates.

 

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible.

Check out our 5-day free trial today:

Improve Your SAT Score by 160+ Points, Guaranteed

 

These recommendations are based solely on our knowledge and experience. If you purchase an item through one of our links, PrepScholar may receive a commission.

 

Источник: https://blog.prepscholar.com/10-best-sat-books-for-sat-prep

Crack the Code! Make a Caesar Cipher

Key concepts
Patterns
Code
Puzzles
Cryptography

Introduction
If you need to send a secret message to a friend, how could you prevent other people from reading it? One way is to encrypt the message—that is, use a secret code that only you and your friend know. Try this activity to learn how to create your own “Caesar cipher,” a popular type of code that is easy to learn.

Background
Cryptography is the study of writing or solving secret codes that are used for secure communication. Historically, codes have been used by politicians, spies and countries at war to prevent their enemies from knowing what they’re up to. Many of the earliest codes, or “ciphers,” such as the one you will create in this project were easy to create by hand. Now cryptography is essential in computer science for keeping everything from e-mails to bank account information secure.

The Caesar cipher, named after Roman Emperor Julius Caesar is one of the earliest and most widely known ciphers. It is a simple form of a “substitution cipher” where you replace each letter of the alphabet with another letter by shifting the whole alphabet a certain number of letters (wrapping around to the beginning once you reach the end). For example, this would be your key and code if you shift each letter by three spaces:

Plain:     ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Cipher:   XYZABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW

So, when you write your message, the letter A gets replaced with X, B gets replaced with Y and so on. For example, the word “HELLO” reads:

Plain:    HELLO
Cipher:  EBIIL

In order to decode your message, you need to share the “key” (the number 3) with your friend. After that you can send messages that are written in cipher so other people can't read them!

Materials

  • Pencil and paper
  • At least one other person

Preparation

  • Explain the concept of a Caesar cipher to a friend or have them read the background section of this activity.
  • Write down the alphabet from A to Z.
  • Pick a number from 1 to 25. (If you use 26, you will just wind up with the original alphabet.) This number is your key.

Procedure

  • Shift the entire alphabet by the number you picked and write it down below your original alphabet (as shown above).
  • Pick a message to write to your friend. It might be easiest to start out with a simple message (such as a single word or phrase) before you try longer sentences or paragraphs.
  • Write down your encoded message using your shifted alphabet. If it helps, write down your plain text message first then encode it one letter at a time (such as the “hello” example above). Just make sure the piece of paper you give your friend only has the encoded message!
  • Give your friend the encoded message and tell them the key. Why do you think you wouldn't want to write down the key?
  • See if your friend can decrypt your message. If it helps for the first try, let them work backward using the original and shifted alphabets you wrote down. Using the example from the background, the letter x becomes a; y becomes b; and so on.
  • Try switching and using a different key for the same messages. Do either look easier to crack?
  • Extra: Try finding a third person who does not know what a Caesar cipher is. Can they crack your code if they “intercept” your message?
  • Extra: What if the person who intercepts your message knows about Caesar ciphers? Does that make it easier to crack the code? Because there are only 25 possible keys, Caesar ciphers are very vulnerable to a “brute force” attack, where the decoder simply tries each possible combination of letters. This might take some patience if a human does it, but nowadays computers can unravel the code in a fraction of a second, so Caesar ciphers are not considered a secure method to encrypt electronic communications.
  • Extra: Another way to crack the Caesar cipher is “frequency analysis,” which is based on the fact that in natural English speech and writing, certain letters appear much more frequently than others. For example, the letter E appears more often than any other one whereas Z appears the least often. (If you have ever played the board game Scrabble, you might notice that this determines how many points letters are worth!) So, for example, if you read an entire paragraph and notice that the letter D appears more often than any other, odds are that it used a Caesar cipher with a shift of 1 (making E a D in the code). This technique will be more accurate for longer blocks of text and very inaccurate for short words or phrases because there are plenty of words that do not contain E at all. Can you have a friend write an entire paragraph with a Caesar cipher and then try to crack it using frequency analysis?
  • Extra: If you plan to use the Caesar cipher for regular communication, one risk is that eventually someone will discover your key. You can help prevent this by changing the key, for example using a new one every week. This is a similar concept to periodically changing your computer passwords.
  • Extra: The Caesar cipher is just one type of substitution cipher. Look up some other types of substitution ciphers and try them out. Are they harder or easier to use and crack?

Observations and results
Once you and your friend both understand how to use a Caesar cipher it should be relatively easy to send encrypted communications to each other. This can be a fun way to pass secret messages back and forth between friends. As discussed above, however, although the Caesar cipher provides a great introduction to cryptography, in the computer age it is no longer a secure way to send encrypted communications electronically.

More to explore
Basics of Cryptography: Caesar Cipher, from Instructables
Cryptography, from Learn Cryptography
Password Hacker, from Scientific American
Science Activities for All Ages!, from Science Buddies

This activity brought to you in partnership with Science Buddies

Science Buddies

Источник: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/crack-the-code-make-a-caesar-cipher/

rekordbox

Requirement of a license key depends on how the product is used, and which model you are using.

EXPORT mode

No license key required.
In this mode, you can use music management, transfer tracks to your USB device, use PRO DJ LINK, make recordings, and perform other functions.

PERFORMANCE mode

A rekordbox dj license key is required(*).
In this mode, you can perform a DJ mix with rekordbox.
If you have a product that comes with a rekordbox dj license key, use the accompanying key.
*A license key is not required when connected to DDJ-200.

When using additional functions (PlusPack)

If you are using an additional function such as rekordbox dvs, rekordbox video, RMX EFFCTS, or rekordbox lyric, you have to use a rekordbox dj license key and the relevant license key for that feature.

https://rekordbox.com/en/support/faq/v5-license/#faq-q500477

Источник: https://rekordbox.com/en/support/faq/v5-license/

“This is my time.”

That attitude will kill a speech every time.

You’ve probably sat through some lousy speeches. Despite the speakers’ renown, you eventually tuned them out over their self-indulgent tangents and pointless details. You understood something these speakers apparently didn’t: This was your time. They were just guests. And your attention was strictly voluntary.

Of course, you’ll probably deliver that speech someday. And you’ll believe your speech will be different. You’ll think, “I have so many important points to make.” And you’ll presume that your presence and ingenuity will dazzle the audience. Let me give you a reality check: Your audience will remember more about who sat with them than anything you say. Even if your best lines would’ve made Churchill envious, some listeners will still fiddle with their smart phones.

In writing a speech, you have two objectives: Making a good impression and leaving your audience with two or three takeaways. The rest is just entertainment. How can you make those crucial points? Consider these strategies:

1) Be Memorable: Sounds easy in theory. Of course, it takes discipline and imagination to pull it off. Many times, an audience may only remember a single line. For example, John F. Kennedy is best known for this declaration in his 1961 inaugural address: “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what can do for your country.” Technically, the line itself uses contrast to grab attention. More important, it encapsulated the main point of Kennedy’s speech: We must sublimate ourselves and serve to achieve the greater good. So follow Kennedy’s example: Condense your theme into a 15-20 word epigram and build everything around it top-to-bottom.

There are other rhetorical devices that leave an impression. For example, Ronald Reagan referred to America as “a shining city on the hill” in speeches. The image evoked religious heritage, freedom, and promise. And listeners associated those sentiments with Reagan’s message. Conversely, speakers can defy their audience’s expectations to get notice. In the movie Say Anything, the valedictorian undercut the canned optimism of high school graduation speeches with two words: “Go back.” In doing so, she left her audience speechless…for a moment, at least.

Metaphors…Analogies…Surprise…Axioms. They all work. You just need to build up to them…and place them in the best spot (preferably near the end).

2) Have a Structure: Think back on a terrible speech. What caused you to lose interest? Chances are, the speaker veered off a logical path. Years ago, our CEO spoke at our national meeting. He started, promisingly enough, by outlining the roots of the 2008 financial collapse. Halfway through those bullet points, he jumped to emerging markets in Vietnam and Brazil. Then, he drifted off to 19th century economic theory. By the time he closed, our CEO had made two points: He needed ADD medication – and a professional speechwriter!

Audiences expect two things from a speaker: A path and a destination. They want to know where you’re going and why. So set the expectation near your opening on what you’ll be covering. As you write and revise, focus on structuring and simplifying. Remove anything that’s extraneous, contradictory, or confusing. Remember: If it doesn’t help you get your core message across, drop it.

3) Don’t Waste the Opening: Too often, speakers squander the time when their audience is most receptive: The opening. Sure, speakers have people to thank. Some probably need time to get comfortable on stage. In the meantime, the audience silently suffers.

When you write, come out swinging. Share a shocking fact or statistic. Tell a humorous anecdote related to your big idea. Open with a question – and have your audience raise their hands. Get your listeners engaged early. And keep the preliminaries short. You’re already losing audience members every minute you talk. Capitalize on the goodwill and momentum you’ll enjoy in your earliest moments on stage.

4) Strike the Right Tone: Who is my audience? Why are they here? And what do they want? Those are questions you must answer before you even touch the keyboard. Writing a speech involves meeting the expectations of others, whether it’s to inform, motivate, entertain, or even challenge. To do this, you must adopt the right tone.

Look at your message. Does it fit with the spirit of the event? Will it draw out the best in people? Here’s a bit of advice: If you’re speaking in a professional setting, focus on being upbeat and uplifting. There’s less risk. Poet Maya Angelou once noted, “I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” Even if your audience forgets everything you said, consider your speech a success if they leave with a smile and a greater sense of hope and purpose. That’s a message in itself. And it’s one they’ll share.

5) Humanize Yourself: You and your message are one-and-the-same. If your audience doesn’t buy into you, they’ll resist your message too. It’s that simple. No doubt, your body language and delivery will leave the biggest impression. Still, there are ways you can use words to connect.

Crack a one liner about your butterflies; everyone can relate to being nervous about public speaking. Share a story about yourself, provided it relates to (or transitions to) your points. Throw in references to your family, to reflect you’re trustworthy. And write like you’re having a casual conversation with a friend. You’re not preaching or selling. You’re just being you. On stage, you can be you at your best.

6) Repeat Yourself: We’ve all been there. When someone is speaking, we’ll drift off to a Caribbean beach or the Autobahn. Or, we’ll find ourselves lost and flustered when we can’t grasp a concept. Once you’ve fallen behind, it’s nearly impossible to pay attention. What’s the point?

In writing a speech, repetition is the key to leaving an impression. Hammer home key words, phrases, and themes. Always be looking for places to tie back and reinforce earlier points. And repeat critical points as if they were a musical refrain.

As a teenager, my coach continuously reminded us that “nothing good happens after midnight.” He’d lecture us on the dangers of partying, fighting, peer pressure, and quitting. After a while, my teammates and I just rolled our eyes. Eventually, we encountered those temptations. When I’d consider giving in, coach would growl “Schmitty” disapprovingly in my head. Despite my resistance, coach had found a way to get me to college unscathed. He simply repeated his message over-and-over until it stuck.

Some audience members may get annoyed when you repeat yourself. But don’t worry how they feel today. Concern yourself with this question: What will they remember six months from now?

7) Use Transitions: Sometimes, audiences won’t recognize what’s important. That’s why you use transitional phrases to signal intent. For example, take a rhetorical question like “What does this mean” – and follow it with a pause. Silence gets attention – and this tactic creates anticipation (along with awakening those who’ve drifted off). Similarly, a phrase like “So here’s the lesson” also captures an audience’s interest. It alerts them that something important is about to be shared. Even if they weren’t paying attention before, they can tune in now and catch up.

8) Include Theatrics: During his workshops, Dr. Stephen Covey would fill a glass bowl nearly full with sand. From there, he’d ask a volunteer to place rocks into the bowl. In the exercise, rocks represented essentials like family, job, worship, and exercise, while the bowl signified the volunteer’s time and energy. It never failed: The volunteer couldn’t fit every rock in the bowl. The sand – which embodied day-to-day activities like transporting children, shopping, or reading – took up too much space. Something had to be cut. Usually, it was something essential.

Covey would then encourage his volunteer to consider another option: Start with placing a rock in the bowl, adding some sand, and then alternating rocks and sand until the bowl was full. Like magic, there was suddenly enough space for both, as the sand gradually filled any gaps between the rocks. The message: Maintain balance. Never lose sight of the essentials as you tend to the day-to-day (and vice versa).

Of course, Covey could’ve made his point verbally and moved on. Instead, he illustrated it with household items in a way his audience wouldn’t soon forget. If you have a smaller audience (or a video screen), consider incorporating visuals. Keep the props, storyline, and lesson simple. When you’re done, leave everything out to symbolize your point to your audience. Whatever you do, don’t play it safe. If you do, your speech will be forgotten in no time.

9) End Strong: In 2004, I attended a Direct Marketing Association (DMA) conference. I don’t recall much about our keynote speaker, except that he was tall and southern. I can’t even remember what his address was about. But I’ll never forget the story he used to close his speech.

The speaker was a friend of Jerry Richardson, owner of the NFL’s Carolina Panthers. A few years earlier, the Panthers had drafted a fiery wide receiver named Steve Smith. While Smith excelled on the field, he was a nightmare in the locker room. Eventually, Smith was arrested for assaulting a teammate during film study.

Already reeling from bad publicity from other player incidents, Richardson was pressured to cut Smith. But he chose a different path. Richardson vowed to spend more time with Smith. He decided that Smith would be better served with guidance and caring than further punishment. Eventually, Richardson’s patience paid off. Smith became the Panthers’ all-time leading receiver – and scored a touchdown in their only Super Bowl appearance. In fact, Smith still plays for the Panthers to this day.

If the speaker intended to remind me how powerful that personal attention and forgiveness could be, he succeeded in spades. Fact is, your close is what your audience will remember. So recap your biggest takeaway. Tie everything together. Share a success story. Make a call to action. Don’t hold anything back. Your ending is what audience will ultimately talk about when they head out the door.

10) Keep it Short: What is the worst sin of public speaking? It’s trying to do too much! Your audience’s attention will naturally wane after a few minutes. They have other places to be – and don’t want to be held hostage. And the longer you stay on stage, the more likely you are to stray and make mistakes. So make your points and sit down. Never forget: This is their time, not yours.

Источник: https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffschmitt/2013/07/16/10-keys-to-writing-a-speech/

7 Reasons You Should Stop Using Microsoft Office 365 Crack Version

Imagine a product available for almost ₹32000 from one site and absolutely free from other. It’s a no brainer which deal we all will lap up. But what if we told you that while one site is selling the genuine version, the other is selling a pirated copy. If you are someone who has downloaded the Microsoft Office 365 crack version, you know exactly what we are talking about.

In a report by the Software Alliance, it was found that globally, close to 40% of personal computers use unlicensed versions of software.

The reasons can range from anywhere to deliberate attempt to cut down on costs or just plain naivety. Whatever it is, using a crack version of Microsoft Office 365 is always risky and can land you in a soup. Before we explore the reasons for this, let’s understand why buying a paid subscription of Office 365 might hold you in a better stead.

Microsoft Office 365 Price

RIP Office 365 Crack: Why You Should Buy the Genuine Version?

Crack version users – Yes we are looking at you. You might think that “I got the whole suite at an affordable price. Why bother to purchase the complete subscription?”.

Sorry to break your bubble but the genuine version of Office 365 suite is far beneficial for both individuals and companies in the long run.

Fancy this for example. After any software or application is launched, the developer company will release security patches to resolve bugs. But if you have opted for Office 365 product key crack, you won’t receive any patches.

Microsoft Office 365 Free Download: What’re the Limitations

  • With MS Office 365 free download or the crack version, you will be bereft of many new functionalities and security features.
  • Microsoft PowerPoint free download comes with its own troubles. It is not quite popular for its editing capabilities with no option of inserting audio and editing images.
  • Are you still not convinced to use the paid version? Well the problems surrounding MS Excel free download will change your mind.  Not only does excel free download lack cell and table customization, it also does not allow locking a sheet or cell protection.

Microsoft Office 365 Free Download Full Version: Security Concerns

  • MS office 365 free download does not meet key security standards and terms. However, with the paid plan, you get more than 1,000 security and privacy controls.
  • Paid plans have robust password policies and custom permissions to access the data.
  • If you download Microsoft 365 for free, your emails won’t be protected against spams, malware, etc.

Here’s a Simple and Economical Way of Getting Original MS 365 Suite

What if we told you that beyond the genuine software VS Crack version battle, there is a simpler method of acquiring licensed Microsoft 365 applications at the minimum cost. At only ₹100 per month, Microsoft 365 suite costs you less than a cup of coffee! Here are all the details.

  • Download the suit or app from the official site.
  • Activate licenses in just 5 minutes via Techjockey.

7 Reasons Microsoft Office 365 Crack Version Is a Big NO

Buying the crack version of MS Office 365 can be the biggest mistake. Microsoft can penalize you, your most private data can get compromised, you won’t get any support…it keeps getting worse. Read on to find out more.


  • You Will Never Get to Know About Latest Updates

For all its genuine subscribers, Microsoft releases security patches and system updates each quarter. If you are making use of the Office 365 crack version, you won’t receive such updates, rendering your system obsolete and vulnerable to breaches.

  • Microsoft Got Eyes On You

Each Microsoft Office app has a product key associated with it. In case a office 365 product key crack is used, the company can easily track it. This is because Microsoft allows one IP address for a single installation session. In case, the same IP is used for multiple installation, the company decodes that a crack version is being used.

  • Microsoft Can Sue You for Office 365 Crack Download

No matter whether you are an individual or a company, Microsoft is well within its rights to sue you. This is because the Microsoft Office 365 crack version is an official violation of its intellectual property. You can be slapped with a legal notice or hefty fines running to the tune of thousands of dollars.

  • No Bigger Security Risk Than Office 365 Cracked Version

Modern day hackers are hiding malicious programs into cracked software versions which then compromise the user’s system. The impact can range from you losing your credentials and data to financial fraud and phishing.

  • No Support Available with Microsoft Office 365 Crack

Since you have not purchased the Office suite from a registered vendor such as Techjockey, you can’t avail technical and customer support. Neither can you have the software installed on your system in a professional manner.

  • Naggy Pop-ups Will Dent Your Productivity

Still thinking of going ahead and using Microsoft Office 365 crack version? Well there’s one more thing to take note of. Each time you try to use any of the applications belonging to the cracked Office suite, a pop-up screen will tell you that your software has been flagged. You will have to confirm this to continue using the application.

  • Microsoft Office 365 Crack Version = Poor User Experience

An office 365 crack version can render your user experience to nothing even if you are using a genuine version of Windows operating systems. Certain features present in the genuine version may be completely off limits in the crack version.


Advanced Functionalities with Microsoft 365 Paid Plans

  • Microsoft Office 365 apps can be used both on the browser as well as desktop and mobile native applications.
  • Word, PPT and Excel, these support real time collaboration and co-authoring.
  • All apps within Office 365 office suite are well integrated with each other. For example, if you miss a message on Teams, the alert would be mailed to you on Outlook.
  • You can directly upload files to Microsoft 365 cloud and then share the link without having to share the actual file.
  • Excel now has a power map feature where you can convert rows of data into an insightful map for detailed analysis.
  • Each subscription gets you 50GB of email storage after which you can use the OneDrive cloud storage option.
  • Looking at Microsoft office 365 free download limitations, you won’t get features such as shading, multilevel lists and ribbons.

Time to Switch: Microsoft 365 Plans for Better Features & Data Security

It is always advised that you avoid using the Microsoft office 365 crack versions. This is because your private data is at the risk of being compromised. Moreover, Microsoft will come to know about illegitimate use of its property and might subject you to heavy fines.

« 15 Best Free Bulk Email Senders for Unlimited Emails

15 Best Sales Call Management Apps for Android & iPhone »

Источник: https://www.techjockey.com/blog/microsoft-office-365-crack-version

Diction

What is Diction?

Diction is

  • the vocabulary, the words, used in a text
  • the accent, pronunciation, or speech-sound quality of a speaker

Diction may also be referred to as Word Choice.

Key Concepts: Register; Rhetorical Situation; Rhetorical Reasoning; Edit for Diction


Why is Diction Important? What is the Role of Diction in Communication?

Words matter.

Diction (aka Word Choice) plays a King-Kong role in determining whether or not an audience will read a message or understand your texts. The audience for a text may disregard your message if they believe you didn’t establish the appropriate language for the rhetorical situation.

Diction plays a substantive role in the clarity of your communications. In fact, ETS (Educational Testing Services), Pearson Education, and other assessment companies use wordiness and sentence length as the chief linguistic markers to determine scoring. Texts that have a robust and complex vocabulary score higher than texts that repeat dull words endlessly.

So . . . if you’re writing in a school context and you want a good grade or if you’re in a work context and want your readers to take your critiques and proposals seriously, you need to pay attention to your diction.

And in all contexts you want your language to be respectful and inclusive.

What is Denotation and Connotation?

Words are symbols. Words are composed of the signifier (i.e., the symbol) and the signified. The signified constitutes the symbol that represents the word. The signifier is the underlying meaning.

Words have meaning at two levels:

  1. the literal level, which is also called the denotative level. This is the meaning of the word that you’ll find in a dictionary, encyclopedia, or reference source.
  2. the connotative level, which concerns the emotional and cultural resonance of a word. Over time, as we learn new words, we associate those words with emotions and the context in which we learned them. Words, at the connotative level, can imply values, judgments, and feelings.

Words can have similar denotations and yet remarkably different connotations.

Positive ConnotationNeutral ConnotationNegative Connotation
Generousextravagant
ThriftyFiscally ConservativeCheap
ChildlikeYoungChildish
Strong WilledDeterminedPushy, bossy, stubbborn

Diction & Subjectivity

People may very well form different associations with a word. And, people may be unaware of how people in other discourse communities use a word. People have histories and those histories are narrated by a never ending stream of words that have gone underground, become embodied, and abbreviated. Thus, it is not surprising that communication is sometimes difficult to achieve. Words may not express your intentions. Words may undermine your ethos and cause your readers to respond emotionally or negatively to your texts.

“Words strain,
Crack and sometimes break, under the burden,
Under the tension, slip, slide, perish,
Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place,
Will not stay still.”

T.S. Eliot, “Burnt Norton”

Diction & the Writing Process

In order to ascertain the appropriate diction for a text you’re writing, you want to engage in rhetorical analysis and rhetorical reasoning to evaluate the Linguistic Register. Once you know the register for a rhetorical situation, you can identify how formal your language needs to be.

[ Edit for Diction ]

Источник: https://writingcommons.org/section/style/diction/

Diction

What is Diction?

Diction is

  • the vocabulary, the words, used in a text
  • the accent, pronunciation, or speech-sound quality of a speaker

Diction may also be referred to as Word Choice.

Key Concepts: Register; Rhetorical Situation; Rhetorical Reasoning; Edit for Diction


Why is Diction Important? What is the Role of Diction in Communication?

Words matter.

Diction (aka Word Choice) plays a King-Kong role in determining whether or not an audience will read a message or understand your texts. The audience for a text may disregard your message if they believe you didn’t establish the appropriate language for the rhetorical situation.

Diction plays a substantive role in the clarity of your communications. In fact, ETS (Educational Testing Services), Pearson Education, and other morphvox android companies use wordiness and sentence length as the chief linguistic markers to determine scoring. Texts that have a robust and complex vocabulary score higher than texts that repeat dull words endlessly.

So. . if you’re writing in a school context and you want a good grade or if you’re in a work context and want your readers to take your critiques and proposals seriously, you need to pay attention to your diction.

And in all contexts you want your language to be respectful and inclusive.

What is Denotation and Connotation?

Words are symbols. Words are composed of the signifier (i.e., the symbol) and the signified. The signified constitutes the symbol that represents the word. The signifier is the underlying meaning.

Words have meaning at two levels:

  1. the literal level, which is also called the denotative level. This is the meaning of the word that you’ll find in a dictionary, encyclopedia, or reference source.
  2. the connotative level, which concerns the emotional and cultural resonance of a word. Over time, as we learn new words, we associate those words with emotions and the context in which we learned them. Words, at the connotative level, can imply values, judgments, and feelings.

Words can have similar denotations and yet remarkably different connotations.

Positive ConnotationNeutral ConnotationNegative Connotation
Generousextravagant
ThriftyFiscally ConservativeCheap
ChildlikeYoungChildish
Strong WilledDeterminedPushy, bossy, stubbborn

Diction & Subjectivity

People may very well form different associations with a word. And, people may be unaware of how people in other discourse communities use a word. People have histories and those histories are narrated by a never ending stream of words that have gone underground, become embodied, and abbreviated. Thus, it is not surprising that communication is sometimes difficult to achieve. Words may not express your intentions. Words may undermine your ethos and cause your readers to respond emotionally or negatively to your texts.

“Words strain,
Crack and sometimes break, under the burden,
Under the tension, slip, slide, perish,
Decay with imprecision, will not stay in place,
Will not stay still.”

T.S. Eliot, “Burnt Norton”

Diction & the Writing Process

In order to ascertain the appropriate diction for a text you’re writing, you want to engage in rhetorical analysis and rhetorical reasoning to evaluate the Linguistic Register. Once you know the register for a rhetorical situation, you can identify how formal your language needs to be.

[ Edit for Diction ]

Источник: https://writingcommons.org/section/style/diction/

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With so many SAT prep books to choose from, how can you tell the good ones from the bad ones? Well, not to worry because we've evaluated SAT books for you! This fully updated guide gives you ourrecommendations for the top 11 SAT preparation books to help you achieve the scores you want.

To best outline the differences, I've divided the books into four main sections:

Before jumping into our SAT book recommendations, though, allow me to give you a word about my perspective.

 

Disclaimer: Why Am I Recommending SAT Books?

You're probably wondering why PrepScholar, known for its online SAT prep program, is going old school and recommending an SAT book list.

As SAT experts who have made it our mission to understand the test and help students succeed, we are dedicated to providing you with the best resources to achieve both your academic and personal goals. If you're self-motivated and prefer using SAT books in your prep, then they can be a great way to learn content, practice strategies, and try out sample questions.

That being said, all the SAT prep books recommended below have strengths and weaknesses. Several of them seem as if they were rushed to publication, while others unfortunately don't offer the same level of quality that they did in previous versions.

I believe PrepScholar has managed to integrate the best parts of these books into its online prep program while adding the helpful element of accountability. We help you plan out and stick to your study schedule, keep track of your progress, and hone the specific skills and practice problem types you need most in order to improve your scores.

With prep books, you can try to customize your study plan to your specific needs too—but with PrepScholar, we do all that heavy lifting for you. Plus, considering the huge gains you can get from it, it's much more cost effective than buying all these books!

Since we're not necessarily benefiting from these SAT book recommendations, you can trust that our advice is neutral, objective, and based on both our and students' real experiences with these SAT preparation books.

Now that we've got all that out of the way, let's move on to our list of SAT books. Because the best representation of SAT questions always come from the test makers themselves, I'll be starting this list with the College Board's Official SAT Study Guide.

 

The College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2020 Edition

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Price:About $20 on Amazon

In past years, I told students that the College Board's SAT guide was the number one, critical book they had to have in their study arsenal. Now, I'm saying pretty much the opposite—don't bother! Why? Because you can find all of its material for free online.

In a helpful move, the College Board has asserted its commitment to transparency by providing free online SAT practice materials (they're also strongly promoting their partnership with Khan Academy, which offers useful video explanations to go along with official SAT questions).

Some students and educators were disappointed to buy The Official Study Guide book only to find that its practice tests were the same exact ones offered online.

So does this book offer anything beyond SAT practice tests? It does dedicate a bunch of pages to explaining the test structure, basic strategies, and answer explanations. Since you can find the majority of this info online, though, I don't recommend buying the official guide unless you really want all the material printed out for you.

If you have access to a printer and a working internet connection, I'd say to take advantage of the free online material and learn about the SAT that way. The total number of tests is still limited, so you might space out these SAT practice tests throughout your prep as a way to gauge your progress and determine what concepts you need to study most.

In between these tests, you can supplement with questions from other books on this list. Read on for the pros and cons of the best overall SAT prep book, along with the best books by SAT section.

 

Best Overall SAT Prep Book: Kallis' SAT Pattern Strategy

Kallis

Price:About $33 on Amazon

Students and educators alike have reported having great experiences with Kallis' Redesigned SAT Pattern Strategy book. This book provides six full-length practice tests, adding up to around 24 hours of practice testing.

 

Pros

  • The SAT questions are generally realistic and closely mimic official test questions.
  • Kallis goes beyond the official guide's simple explanations to give step-by-step answer explanations for each question. These in-depth descriptions help you understand any mistakes and fix them for next time—a key strategy for improving your scores.
  • The book discusses 101 topics you'll find on the SAT and offers a clear, focused presentation of fundamental concepts in grammar, literature, and math. Beyond content review, this book gives some analysis of the various question types, allowing you to take a more strategic approach to your prep.
  • Kallis goes over the structure, format, and topics covered on the SAT in detail, so you'll have a strong grasp of logistics before test day. This review will save you time in having to read any instructions and pace yourself since you'll know exactly what to expect on the SAT.

 

Cons

  • While this book does a good job providing realistic practice questions and content review, it's less helpful for learning key SAT strategies, such as time management and the process of elimination. Because this book emphasizes a "learning by doing" approach, it doesn't spend a lot of time going over mindset and critical test-taking strategies.
  • This book is relatively expensive at over $30 on Amazon (although you can get a used version for about half that price).
  • It requires a lot of independence and self-discipline. You'll need to take responsibility for dividing up the material in the most effective way and designing and sticking to a productive study plan. While the practice questions are there, it's up to you to put in the work and make the most out of them.

 

Best Traditional SAT Prep Books for Instruction, Strategy, and Practice Questions

The following SAT prep books are of decent quality but have some serious weaknesses as well. The following four books are the best currently available for content review and practice problems. Let's go over the pros and cons of each.

 

SAT Prep Black Book, 2nd Edition

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Price:About $28 on Amazon

I highly recommend SAT Prep Black Book for its insightful strategies and test advice. The SAT Black Book, as it's called, was written by Mike Barrett, who's taken the time to understand the test inside and out. In it, he goes over the different types of questions and introduces critical tips, such as how to recognize tricky wording and "distractor" answer choices.

 

Pros

  • This book is excellent for students who want to learn about the structure, format, and tricks of the SAT, and for those who want to gain practical strategies when it comes to answering questions and saving time.
  • It can be useful for students of all levels, since Barrett customizes his advice depending on your target score.
  • It provides thorough answer explanations for questions on the first four official SAT practice tests. Where the College Board fails to walk you through the steps of a practice problem or explain why other answer choices are incorrect, this book guides you through each question on each practice test in detail.
  • It can help change your mindset when actually taking the SAT. You can incorporate the book's explanations and strategies into your own approach so that you're more confident when answering each question type. While the Black Book is great for strategy, though, it's less helpful for studying concepts.

 

Cons

  • It doesn't have any of its own SAT practice questions. Instead, the book must be used in conjunction with the official SAT practice tests. It refers directly to official SAT questions and gives thorough explanations, especially for the hardest questions.
  • The Black Book focuses on strategy and understanding the SAT, so it's not the strongest resource for reviewing concepts and content. If you're looking to completely relearn sentence parallelism or linear functions, for instance, you'd need an additional resource.
  • Although I find this book to be written in a pretty engaging style, this is entirely a matter of opinion; in other words, Barrett's explanation style and test strategies might not work for everyone.

 

McGraw-Hill Education SAT Elite 2022

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Price:About $24 on Amazon

If you're looking for an informative overview of the structure and content of the SAT, then McGraw-Hill Education SAT Elite 2022 is a decent choice. At more than 950 pages long, this massive book goes over the SAT in great detail, from the number of questions to the time limits on each section, so you can know exactly what to expect on test day.

 

Pros

  • It contains eight full-length SAT practice tests, including one diagnostic test. Five of the tests are in the book, and three are online. These are all fairly realistic and include thorough answer explanations for each question.
  • The book's practice questions are realistic and resemble official questions. Specifically, the Math questions feature real-world scenarios you'd likely see on the SAT, with problems revolving around topics such as temperature and selling tickets for a performance.
  • The book is extremely strong in its presentation of SAT Math concepts. It breaks down all the major topics in detail, from expressions and linear systems to less commonly tested ideas such as geometry, basic trig, and complex numbers.
  • It gives you helpful guidance when it comes to mapping out your SAT study plan. Similar to our own SAT prep program, this book suggests beginning your prep with a diagnostic SAT practice test and using it to shape your study plan. It also offers some crucial strategies, such as improving your calculator fluency so you know when it'll be useful and when it'll just slow you down

 

Cons

  • It's weak in reviewing Reading and Writing. While the book goes over the Math section in detail, its presentation of the two verbal sections is more limited and even a little unusual. Its review of the sections is more conceptual and experimental than it is specific to the SAT. For instance, the book features chapters with titles like "Language of Truth, Truthfulness, and Beauty" and the "Language of Dissent, Criticism, and Rebellion." While these sections might sound interesting to book lovers, they aren't really relevant to the SAT—a feature I consider critical when prepping for this unique, idiosyncratic test.

 

Barron's SAT, 29th Edition

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Price:$27 on Amazon

Barron's SAT, 29th Edition is another thorough prep book that offers ample content review, sample questions, and SAT practice tests.

 

Pros

  • The book contains four full-length practice tests, in addition to access to two more full-length online practice test. This gives you tons of opportunities to practice.
  • It offers a diagnostic test, a helpful tool to familiarize you with the SAT, get you into a testing mindset, and help you note any weaknesses you'll need to address moving forward.
  • Barron's is very comprehensive and covers most of the topics you need to know for the Winrar cracked 2018 - Crack Key For U. Because of its dense format, it's typically more effective for high scorers who can engage quickly with the content and maintain focus throughout. If you can divide up and scaffold the material in a manageable way, there's no doubt you'll gain some valuable practice with this SAT prep book.

 

Cons

  • Barron's has been criticized for recycling practice questions from its old books rather than creating new SAT content, and this problem remains in this edition as well. Simply reusing old questions won't give you a realistic sense of the question types and concepts on the SAT. This book appears especially guilty of this in its math sections, where it also lacks sufficient focus on algebra—a major component of the test.
  • Some of the questions are overly confusing and havecomplicated wording. By contrast, real SAT test questions call for in-depth reasoning skills while using relatively straightforward wording. Therefore, the questions you'll get in Barron's, while helpful, might ultimately be too hard and not as useful as they could be for your test prep.

 

The Princeton Review's Cracking the SAT, 2020 Edition

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Price:About $20 on Amazon (and $3 for the premium edition)

Similar to Barron's, The Princeton Review's Cracking the SAT, 2020 Edition prep book provides a comprehensive review of the SAT, covering concepts you need to know, such as grammar rules and algebraic functions, along with strategies for approaching the test questions and managing your time.

 

Pros

  • It contains four full-length practice tests and one additional practice test you can access online (or, if you get the premium version, you'll have access to three more online, giving you a total of eight practice tests!).
  • The book offers thorough answer explanations for practice questions, which help you think about how you can approach similar questions in the future and on test day.
  • There's an online component that helps you score your practice tests.

 

Cons

  • The Princeton Review shares one of Barron's biggest drawbacks: some of its questions have overly elaborate wording and therefore don't match the straightforward style of official SAT questions that well. While the practice tests are helpful, they're not the best representation of SAT questions.
  • Some of the book's content review and questions are too conceptually easy. While Barron's might be better for especially motivated students aiming for top scores, this book is probably more appropriate for students scoring around or below 600 on a test section. Don't expect to have this book help you score much beyond this range.
  • It doesn't break each content area down into as many subtopics as it could, so there's a lack of detail when it comes to certain subject areas.
  • Its style might not be for everyone. This book is a big, traditional test SAT prep book with a straightforward approach. While some students might appreciate or prefer this, others might find it boring and dull.

 

All the SAT prep books mentioned above have both strengths and weaknesses. Combined, though, they provide relatively comprehensive prep in all major areas: practice questions, content review, and strategies.

If you're looking to focus even more on a particular SAT section, you'll likely benefit from a subject-specific SAT prep book. The following books are my top recommendations for SAT Math, Reading, and Writing.

 

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Unlike his couches, this frog prefers his SAT prep one section at a time.

 

Best Books for SAT Math

Books that focus on a single SAT subject often provide especially in-depth prep. Plus, they can be easier to approach than the huge comprehensive test prep books. If you need more prep in one section than the others or are taking advantage of your colleges' superscoring policies by building up your SAT scores one section at a time, then these books could be great resources.

We'll start with my recommendations for Math prep books, starting with Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems.

 

Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems

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Price:About $40 on Amazon

Dr. Steve Warner's 500 New SAT Math Problems is his most recent in SAT Math preparation. He discusses each area on the test: Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Geometry and Complex Numbers (the College Board calls this last topic Additional Topics).

 

Pros

  • Just like with his last series, Dr. Warner offers comprehensive and clear content review and instruction.
  • This book helpfully arranges SAT math concepts by difficulty, with the easiest being Level 1 and the most advanced being Level 5. This organization ensures that math problems from all the different content areas are integrated; it also allows you to focus on certain chapters depending on your own level. Students already scoring in the 700s, for instance, will benefit the most from studying Level 4 and 5 concepts and problems.
  • Each lesson in this book is carefully crafted, and practice problems are realistic,helping to reinforce your understanding.
  • Answer explanations are clear and go over some different approaches you can take when solving a problem. As mentioned above, these kinds of multifaceted explanations appeal to different kinds of learners and allow you to carefully understand your mistakes and fix them for next time.

 

Cons

  • While it's perhaps unfair to compare this book with its predecessors (which focused on the old version of the SAT), I can't help but find it a little limited. The book could be a better resource if it broke down each content area into smaller, more specific subtopics.

  • At $40, it's also quite an investment for a book that only covers on subject of the SAT.

 

Dr. Jang's SAT 800 Math Workbook New Edition

jangsat

 

Price:About $24 on Amazon

At more than 400 pages long, Dr. Jang's SAT 800 Math Workbook for the New SAT is a great (and hefty) math prep book to add to your SAT book collection.

 

Pros

  • By far, this book's most impressive strength is its sheer number of math practice problems—more than 1,500 of them! It definitely allows for a "learning by doing" approach, as you can time yourself and answer practice questions for days on end.
  • Question types are arranged by difficulty level, so you can break them up and customize your math practice depending on your needs. You might start with Dr. Jang's diagnostic test and then space out the book's 10 sample tests as you prep.
  • Dr. Jang's SAT math problems are generally realistic examples of what you'll see on the SAT. The book emphasizes algebra, includes basic trigonometry, and divides questions into non-calculator and calculator sections (just like the actual SAT does). It also offers a strong representation of the concepts, format, and rules you'll encounter on the SAT Math section.

 

Cons

  • This book is like the flipped version of Dr. Warner's book above—lots of practice problems but not a ton of content review. For more instruction, as well as strategies and detailed explanations, you'll need to supplement this workbook with another resource.
  • It has some occasional typos, which can detract from your prep.
  • It doesn't include many test-taking strategies, such as time management. This book has lots of practice problems that appeal to students of all levels, but it's probably not sufficient on its own to prep you for all aspects of SAT Math.

 

PWN The SAT: Math Guide, 4th Edition

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Price:About $30 on Amazon

PWN the SATtargets high-achieving, motivated students who are aiming for a top score in SAT Math. The book contains five main sections: Techniques, Heart of Algebra, Passport to Advanced Math, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Additional Topics in Math. Each category is broken down into its component concepts to teach you the fundamentals tested on SAT Math.

 

Pros

  • The book is written in an engaging, irreverent style, which can help students stay engaged with the material.
  • It has realistic practice math problems, both Calculator and No Calculator, to help you get ready for both question types. Each chapter also provides a list of official questions of a certain type to help you drill specific skills.
  • You can register on the PWN SAT website to get bonus material and watch video answer explanations that walk you step by step through the practice problems.

 

Cons

  • Its target audience is limited. While this book will help top scorers with strong math skills, it won't be as accessible to students who struggle with math. If you want to focus on gaining foundational knowledge, PWN the SAT isn't the book for you.

 

Although there are works by several different authors to choose from to maximize your SAT Math score, I just have one author recommendation to boost your SAT Reading and Writing score: Erica Meltzer.

 

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Quick coffee break, and then it's on to SAT Reading and Writing.

 

Best Books for SAT Reading and Writing

If you're looking to brush up your reading comprehension skills or knowledge of grammar rules, I recommend Erica Meltzer's books on the Reading and Writing sections of the SAT.

 

The Critical Reader: The Complete Guide to SAT Reading, 3rd Edition

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Price:About $33 on Amazon

While studying for the SAT Reading section might seem hard to break down into specific parts, Erica Meltzer's Complete Guide to SAT Reading does a good job outlining the skills you'll need.

 

Pros

  • It offers helpful strategies for answering questions. While your English class might leave more room for subjective interpretation, the SAT Reading section does not. This book helps you locate the one unambiguously correct answer on reading comprehension questions.
  • In addition to time management and reading comprehension techniques, this book teaches you how to locate and identify key information both quickly and efficiently. It provides useful strategies for approaching paired supporting evidence and data interpretation questions, many of which require you to read tables or graphs.
  • It has a list of common, multiple-meaning words with their various definitions alongside strategies for how to use context clues to uncover the meanings of words and phrases.
  • It's full of high-quality questions and passages that resemble what you'll see on the SAT, including passages from US/world literature, history/social studies, and science. It also incorporates questions from the College Board and Khan Academy so you can match up concepts with relevant official sample questions.

 

Cons

  • Not all students are fans of the overall layout and formatting of the book, which has small, crowded font and isn't very creative or engaging.
  • The writing style is all to the point. Some people appreciate this for its directness; other students find it dry. You can learn more about it at Meltzer's blog, The Critical Reader, and see how it suits you.
  • It's a relatively expensive book considering it only covers one section of the SAT.

 

The Critical Reader: The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar, 4th Edition

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Price:About $31 on Amazon

Erica Meltzer's Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar clearly articulates the important grammar rules you'll need to know for the SAT Writing section and does a fantastic job getting you used to how the section Authoring Related - Crack Key For U look and what kinds of questions you'll be asked on test day.

 

Pros

  • The questions are realistic and resemble those on the SAT Writing section. Like questions on the SAT, they are all connected to the context of a longer passage.
  • It breaks down critical skills and grammar rules so you can study them individually. By learning the rules of grammar and usage, you'll be able to apply them to practice problems. Rather than just choosing an answer that sounds right, Meltzer's book will teach you all the rules you absolutely must know to get a good SAT Writing score.

 

Cons

  • While this book is helpful in the way it breaks the section down by skill and grammar rule, the questions on the real SAT will be in random order. This resource is useful for learning and drilling the rules, but you also want to take practice tests to make sure you can easily identify the grammar rule, even when it's not clearly laid out and labeled for you.
  • There isn't a frequency guide, so it's hard to know which rules to prioritize over others.
  • It's written in a similar style to her SAT Reading book, which some students might find dry.
  • Like Meltzer's SAT Reading book, it's somewhat costly at around $30.

 

This concludes our list of the best SAT prep books. Now, since this guide is meant to help you streamline your studying, let's discuss how you can best use these books to prep for the SAT and achieve your target scores.

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Key Tips for Studying With SAT Prep Books

There are a lot of options when it comes to studying for the SAT from books. Rather than reading them cover to cover, you would be better served coming up with a plan and breaking each book down into smaller, manageable goals.

I recommend using an official College Board practice test to give yourself a pre-test and gain a sense of your starting level, or baseline score. Use its answer key to score it and then analyze your results to determine what areas of the test you need to focus on in your prep.

You could also save one of the tests to take right before you take the official SAT so you can gain a sense of how much you've improved. As mentioned, the other tests could be used as benchmarks along the way to gauge your progress and re-adjust your study plan if needed.

A comprehensive book such as Kallis' or Barron's Authoring Related - Crack Key For U be used alongside a subject-specific book, such as Steve Warner's Math book and Erica Meltzer's Reading and Writing guides. Depending on your goals and needs, you can decide how much time to devote to each subject to get the most out of your studying.

There's a lot of room here to customize your study plan to your own strengths, weaknesses, and goals. This requires a good deal of planning and self-discipline to actually stick to your plan. You'll also benefit from reflecting on what works best for you in terms of maintaining interest, retaining information, and staying organized.

If this sounds like a lot of "study prep" before you even get to your test prep, you might benefit from exploring SAT prep options beyond using an SAT book list.

 

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Time to explore!

 

Final Tip: Explore Your SAT Prep Options

The SAT is a unique test. Doing well in math and English class doesn't necessarily guarantee you a high score on SAT Math or Reading. Prep is a critical component of getting a high score for most students, which the College Board is finally acknowledging with its efforts to provide free online practice materials.

Since you probably don't have time to waste, you want to make the most of your prep time. If you're taking time out of your schedule to study, you should see results.

PrepScholar's online SAT program was developed with these goals in mind. It retains the quality of content review, practical strategies, and SAT practice questions while adding those elements of accountability and customization. It also ensures you're getting the most out of your prep and aren't wasting time on material you already know or that won't help you on the SAT.

With that same goal in mind, we've made available a number of in-depth strategy guides for the SAT, which we're adding to all the time. Here are some of our most popular guides:

The recommended SAT prep books can be very useful in getting you ready, but they can also feel overwhelming and repetitive, not to mention expensive.

Take the time to explore your options while also learning about Authoring Related - Crack Key For U SAT from high-quality online resources and our detailed guides. If you're putting in the time to prep for the SAT, make sure that you're seeing results and enjoying the process along the way!

 

What's Next?

Before delving into content and strategies, you should familiarize yourself with exactly what's on the SAT. Learn all about the Reading, Writing, and Math sections in our individual guides. Also, read our complete guide to the SAT to learn more about the test overall.

An important part of your study schedule is knowing exactly when you plan to take the SAT. Read all about how to choose ntlite cracked reddit test dates.

Did you know a lot of colleges superscore the SAT, meaning they take your highest section scores across all dates? Learn how you can use this policy to your advantage and build up your scores across different test dates.

 

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible.

Check out our 5-day free trial today:

Improve Your SAT Score by 160+ Points, Guaranteed

 

These recommendations are based solely on our knowledge and experience. If you purchase an item through one of our links, PrepScholar may receive a commission.

 

Источник: https://blog.prepscholar.com/10-best-sat-books-for-sat-prep

List of available regions

Every week, our researchers round up the latest security news and report our findings in these blog pages. If you’ve been reading, you may have noticed a particularly nasty trend claiming new victims week after week — data breaches. In the last two months alone, we’ve reported on Carnival Cruises, ProctorU and Garmin. And that’s only some of them.

Your passwords grant access into your own personal kingdom, so you are probably thinking 'what are the best practices to create a strong password' to protect your accounts against these cybercriminals. If your passwords were part of a breach, you will want to change them immediately.

So, what's the solution? Uncrackable passwords. But before jumping to that, let’s first take a look at the various ways passwords can be hacked, so that you understand the most common methods being used today.

How does a password get hacked?

Cybercriminals have several password-hacking tactics at their disposal, but the easiest one is simply to buy your passwords off the dark web. There’s big money in the buying and selling of login credentials and passwords on the blackmarket, and if you’ve been using the same password for many years, chances are it’s been compromised.

But if you’ve been wise enough to keep your passwords off the aggregated blackmarket lists, cybercriminals have to crack them. And if that’s the case, they’re bound to use one of the methods below. These attacks can be aimed at your actual accounts or possibly at a leaked database of hashed passwords.

Brute force attack

This attack tries to guess every combination in the book until it hits on yours. The attacker automates software to try as many combinations as possible in as quick a time as possible, and there has been some unfortunate headway in the evolution of that tech. In 2012, an industrious hacker unveiled a 25-GPU cluster he had programmed to crack any 8-character Windows password containing uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols in less than six hours. It has the ability to try 350 billion guesses per Authoring Related - Crack Key For U. Generally, anything under 12 characters is vulnerable to being cracked. If nothing else, we learn from brute force attacks that password length is very important. The longer, the better.

Dictionary attack

This attack is exactly what it sounds like — the hacker is essentially attacking you with a dictionary. Whereas a brute force attack tries every combination of symbols, numbers, and letters, a dictionary attack tries a prearranged list of words such as you’d find in a dictionary.

If your password is indeed a regular word, you’ll only survive a dictionary attack if your word is wildy uncommon or if you use multiple word phrases, like LaundryZebraTowelBlue. These multiple word phrase passwords outsmart a dictionary attack, which reduces the possible number of variations to the number of words we might use to the exponential power of the number of words we’re using, as explained in the “How to Choose a Password” video by Computerphile.

Phishing

That most loathsome of tactics — phishing — is when cybercriminals try to trick, intimidate, or pressure you through social engineering into unwittingly doing what they want. A phishing email may tell you (falsely) that there’s something wrong with your credit card account. It will direct you to click a link, which takes you to Authoring Related - Crack Key For U phony website built to resemble your credit card company. The scammers stand by with bated breath, hoping the ruse is working and that you’ll now enter your password. Once you do, they have it.

Phishing scams can try to ensnare you through phone calls too. Be leery of any robocall you get claiming to be about your credit card account. Notice the recorded greeting doesn’t specify which credit card it’s calling about. It’s a sort of test to see if you hang up right away or if they’ve got you “hooked.” If you stay on the line, you will be connected to a real person who will do what they can to wheedle as much sensitive data out of you as possible, including your passwords.

The anatomy of a strong password

Now that we know how passwords are hacked, we can create strong passwords that outsmart each attack (though the way to outsmart a phishing scam is simply not to fall for it). Your password is on its way to being uncrackable if it follows these three basic rules.

Don’t be silly

Stay away from the obvious. Never use sequential numbers or letters, and for the love of all things cyber, do not use “password” as your password. Come up with unique passwords that do not include any personal info such as your name or date of birth. If you’re being specifically targeted for a password hack, the hacker will put everything they know about you in their guess attempts.

Avoid these top 10 weak passwords

Can it be brute force attacked?

Keeping in mind the nature of a brute force attack, you can take specific steps to keep the brutes at bay:

  • Make it long. This is the most critical factor. Choose nothing shorter than 15 characters, more if possible.
  • Use a mix of characters. The more you mix up letters (upper-case and lower-case), numbers, and symbols, the more potent your password is, and the harder it is for a brute force attack to crack it.
  • Avoid common substitutions. Password crackers are hip to the usual substitutions. Whether you use DOORBELL or D00R8377, the brute force attacker will crack it with equal ease. These days, random character placement is much more effective than common leetspeak* substitutions. (*leetspeak definition: an informal language or code used on the Internet, in which standard letters are often replaced by numerals or special characters.)
  • Don’t use memorable keyboard paths. Much like the advice above not to use sequential letters and numbers, do not use sequential keyboard paths either (like qwerty). These are among the first to be guessed.

Can it be dictionary attacked?

The key to staving off this type of attack is to ensure the password is not just a single word. Multiple words will confuse this tactic — remember, these attacks reduce the possible number of guesses to the number of words we might use to the exponential power of the number of words we are using, as explained in the popular XKCD post on this topic.

The best password methods (and great password examples)

At Avast, we know a thing or two about cybersecurity. We know what makes a solid password, and we have our favorite methods to create them. The methods below give you some good password ideas to create your own strong, memorable passwords.  Follow one of these handy tips, and you’ll be doubling down on protecting your digital world.

The revised passphrase method

This is the multiple word phrase method with a twist — choose bizarre and uncommon words. Use proper nouns, the names of local businesses, historical figures, any words you know in another language, etc. A hacker might guess Quagmire, but he or she would find it ridiculously challenging to try to guess a good password example like this:

QuagmireHancockMerciDeNada

While the words should be uncommon, try to compose a phrase that gives you a mental image. This will help you remember.

To crank it up another notch in complexity, you can add random characters in the middle of your words or between the words. Just avoid underscores between words and any common leetspeak* substitutions. (*leetspeak: an informal language or code used on the Internet, in which standard letters are often replaced by numerals or special characters.)

The sentence method

This method is also described as the "Bruce Schneier Method." The idea is to think of a random sentence and transform it into a password using a rule. For example, taking the first two letters of every word in “The Old Duke is my favorite pub in South London” would give you:

ThOlDuismyfapuinSoLo

To anyone else, it’s gobbledygook, but to you it makes perfect sense. Make sure the sentence you choose is as personal and unguessable as possible.

Recommended ways to improve your password portfolio

All of the above methods help to strengthen your passwords but aren’t very workable, given that the average person uses dozens of them. Let’s review a few ways we recommend: use new complex passwords and a password manager, install an authenticator app on your smartphone, and purchase new hardware. Each of these can help with better and more secure authentications. 

Use a password manager and a random password generator 

A password manager keeps track of all of your passwords and does all the remembering for you, except for one thing — the master password which grants you access to your password manager. For that big kahuna, we encourage you to use every tip and trick listed above.The programs also come with generators, such as the Avast Random Password Generator shown below, so you can create super-complicated, extra-long passwords that are infinitely more difficult to crack than any passwords a human might come up with. PC Magazine has a series of recommendations of password managers here. 

Test your email address, too

Check the Avast Hack Check site to see if your password has been leaked in previous data breaches. If it has, change your password on your email account immediately.

Sample test using Avast Hack Check showing that the email “test@gmail.com” has been compromised in a previous data breach.

Be careful who you trust

Security-conscious websites will hash its users’ passwords so that even if the data gets out, the actual passwords are encrypted. But other websites don’t bother with that step. Before starting up accounts, creating passwords, and entrusting a website with sensitive info, take a moment to assess the site. Does it have https in the address bar, ensuring a secure connection? Do you get the sense it is up on the newest security standards of the day? If not, think twice about sharing any personal data with it.

Use multi-factor authentication

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) adds an extra layer of protection (which becomes your first layer of protection should your account details ever get leaked). These have become the new industry standard for effective security. In our blog post here, we explain how they are used and how you can add MFA to common social accounts such as Twitter and Facebook. They require something in addition to a password, such as biometrics (fingerprint, eye scan, etc.), or a physical token. This way, as simple or complex as your password is, it’s only half of the puzzle.  

Further reading: How to use multi-factor authentication for safer apps

Note: given the 2018 Reddit hack caused by SMS-intercepts, we do not recommend using SMS as your second factor of authentication. This is a well-trod path by many hackers in the past few years. 

Use an authenticator smartphone app

The best MFA method is to use a specialized app for your smartphone. Google’s Authenticator (for Apple here, for Android here) and Authy are two examples and both are free. The app generates a one-time PIN that you enter as the additional factor during your login process. The PINs automatically change every 30 seconds. You’ll need to follow the instructions to set up MFA for your particular application and some applications don’t yet support this MFA method.

Security keys and the FIDO alliance

Security keys take security to the next level.  A security key like the YubiKey (named for “ubiquitous key”) gives you the most state-of-the-art protection available today. It serves as your MFA, granting you file access only if you physically have the key. Security keys are available in USB, NFC, or Bluetooth versions, and they are generally about the size of a thumb drive. In 2017, Google mandated all of its employees to begin using security keys, and the company claims it has not experienced a single data breach among its 85,000 workers since. They have their own product called the Titan Security Key, designed specifically to protect people against phishing attacks.

For MFA and security keys: check out the FIDO alliance, which is working on creating strong authentication standards for desktop and mobile apps. If you’re as concerned about online security as we are, you want only to use FIDO-compliant services such as Microsoft, Google, PayPal, Bank of America, NTTDocomo, and DropBox, to name a few. When a certain security key, website, mobile app, etc. is “FIDO® Certified,” it satisfies the alliance’s high standard of authentication and protection.

In the early days of practical thought, Socrates doled out the sophisticated advice: Know thyself. We’re going to borrow from his book, upgrade the advice by a couple thousand years, and encourage all of you to do that which is absolutely essential today: Secure thyself.

Additional security tips surrounding passwords

Protect your login information further with these common sense, high-security tips:

  • Use a VPN when on public Wi-Fi. That way, when you log into accounts, no one is intercepting your username and password.

  • Never text or email anyone your password.

  • When selecting security questions while creating an account, choose hard-to-guess options to which only you know the answer.  Many questions have easy-to-find answers in social channels with a simple search, so beware and choose carefully.  

  • When you’re done, take the time to tell your family and friends to protect themselves too. Breaches continue to happen, so just by sharing this blog post with friends and family, you will be helping your inner circle to protect themselves.

  • Make sure your antivirus is up-to-date. (Don't have one? Try Avast Free Antivirus.) If a threat somehow gets past your strong defenses and into your system, a good antivirus will detect and neutralize it.
Источник: https://blog.avast.com/strong-password-ideas

“This is my time.”

That attitude will kill a speech every time.

You’ve probably sat through some lousy speeches. Despite the speakers’ renown, you eventually tuned them out over their self-indulgent tangents and pointless details. You understood something these speakers apparently didn’t: This was your time. They were just guests. And your attention was strictly voluntary.

Of course, you’ll probably deliver that speech someday. And you’ll believe your speech will be different. You’ll think, “I have so many important points to make.” And you’ll presume that your presence and ingenuity will dazzle the audience. Let me give you a reality check: Your audience will remember more about who sat with them than anything you say. Even if your best lines would’ve made Churchill envious, some listeners will still fiddle with their smart phones.

In writing a speech, you have two objectives: Making a good impression and leaving your audience with two or three takeaways. The rest is just entertainment. How can you make those crucial points? Consider these strategies:

1) Be Memorable: Sounds easy in theory. Of course, it takes discipline and imagination to pull it off. Many times, an audience may only remember a single line. For example, John F. Kennedy is best known for this declaration in his 1961 inaugural address: “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what can do for your country.” Technically, the line itself uses contrast to grab attention. More important, it encapsulated the main point of Kennedy’s speech: We must sublimate ourselves and serve to achieve the greater good. So follow Kennedy’s example: Condense your theme into a 15-20 word epigram and build everything around it top-to-bottom.

There are other rhetorical devices that leave an impression. For example, Ronald Reagan referred to America as “a shining city on the hill” in speeches. The image evoked religious heritage, freedom, and promise. And listeners associated those sentiments with Reagan’s message. Conversely, speakers can defy their audience’s expectations to get notice. In the movie Say Anything, the valedictorian undercut the canned optimism of high school graduation speeches with two words: “Go back.” In doing so, she left her audience speechless…for a moment, at least.

Metaphors…Analogies…Surprise…Axioms. They all work. You just need to build up to them…and place them in the best spot (preferably near the end).

2) Have a Structure: Think back on a terrible speech. What caused you to lose interest? Chances are, the speaker veered off a logical path. Years ago, our CEO spoke at our national meeting. He started, promisingly enough, by outlining the roots of the 2008 financial collapse. Halfway through those bullet points, he jumped to emerging markets in Vietnam and Brazil. Then, he drifted off to 19th century economic theory. By the time he closed, our CEO had made two points: He needed ADD medication – and a professional speechwriter!

Audiences expect two things from a speaker: A path and a destination. They want to know where you’re going and why. So set the expectation near your opening on what you’ll be covering. As you write and revise, focus on structuring and simplifying. Remove anything that’s extraneous, contradictory, or confusing. Remember: If it doesn’t help you get your core message across, drop it.

3) Don’t Waste the Opening: Authoring Related - Crack Key For U often, speakers squander the time when their audience is most receptive: The opening. Sure, speakers have people to thank. Some probably need time to get comfortable on stage. In the meantime, the audience silently suffers.

When you write, come out swinging. Share a shocking fact or statistic. Tell a humorous anecdote related to your big idea. Open with a question – and have your audience raise their hands. Get your listeners engaged early. And keep the preliminaries short. You’re already losing audience members every minute you talk. Capitalize on the goodwill and momentum you’ll enjoy in your earliest moments on stage.

4) Strike the Right Tone: Who is my audience? Why are they here? And what do they want? Those are questions you must answer before you even touch the keyboard. Writing a speech involves meeting the expectations of others, whether it’s to inform, motivate, entertain, or even challenge. To do this, you must adopt the right tone.

Look at your message. Does it Authoring Related - Crack Key For U with the spirit of the event? Will it draw out the best in people? Here’s a bit of advice: If you’re speaking in a professional setting, focus on being upbeat and uplifting. There’s less risk. Poet Maya Angelou once noted, “I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” Even if your audience forgets everything you said, consider your speech a success if they leave with a smile and a greater sense of hope and purpose. That’s a message in itself. And it’s one they’ll share.

5) Humanize Yourself: You and your message are one-and-the-same. If your audience doesn’t buy into you, they’ll resist your message too. It’s that simple. No doubt, your body language and delivery will leave the biggest impression. Still, there are ways you can use words to connect.

Crack a one liner about your butterflies; everyone can relate to being nervous about public speaking. Share a story about yourself, provided it relates to (or transitions to) your points. Throw in references to your family, to reflect you’re trustworthy. And write like you’re having a casual conversation with a friend. You’re not preaching or selling. You’re just being you. On stage, you can be you at your best.

6) Repeat Yourself: We’ve all been there. When someone is speaking, we’ll drift off to a Caribbean beach or the Autobahn. Or, we’ll find ourselves lost and flustered when we can’t grasp a concept. Once you’ve fallen behind, it’s nearly impossible to pay attention. What’s the point?

In writing a speech, repetition is the key to leaving an impression. Hammer home key words, phrases, and themes. Always be looking for places to tie back and reinforce earlier points. And repeat critical points as if they were a musical refrain.

As a teenager, my coach continuously reminded us that “nothing good happens after midnight.” He’d lecture us on the dangers of partying, fighting, peer pressure, and quitting. After a while, my teammates and I just rolled our eyes. Eventually, we encountered those temptations. When I’d consider giving in, coach would growl “Schmitty” disapprovingly in my head. Despite my resistance, coach had found a way to get me to college unscathed. He simply repeated his message over-and-over until it stuck.

Some audience members may get annoyed when you repeat yourself. But don’t worry how they feel today. Concern yourself with this question: What will they remember six months from now?

7) Use Transitions: Sometimes, audiences won’t recognize what’s important. That’s why you use transitional phrases to signal intent. For example, take a rhetorical question like “What does this mean” – and follow it with a pause. Silence gets attention – and this tactic creates anticipation (along with awakening those who’ve drifted off). Similarly, a phrase like “So here’s the lesson” also captures an audience’s interest. It alerts them that something important is about to be shared. Even if they weren’t paying attention before, they can tune in now and catch up.

8) Include Theatrics: During his workshops, Dr. Stephen Covey would fill a glass bowl nearly full with sand. From there, he’d ask a volunteer to place rocks into the bowl. In the exercise, rocks represented essentials like family, job, worship, and exercise, while the bowl signified the volunteer’s time and energy. It never failed: The volunteer couldn’t fit every rock in the bowl. The sand – which embodied day-to-day activities like transporting children, shopping, or reading – took up too much space. Something had to be cut. Usually, it was something essential.

Covey would then encourage his volunteer to consider another option: Start with placing a rock in the bowl, adding some sand, and then alternating rocks and sand until the bowl was full. Like magic, there was suddenly enough space for both, as the sand gradually filled any gaps between the rocks. The message: Maintain balance. Never lose sight of the essentials as you tend to the day-to-day (and vice versa).

Of course, Covey could’ve made his point verbally and moved on. Instead, he illustrated it with household items in a way his audience wouldn’t soon forget. If you have a smaller audience (or a video screen), consider incorporating visuals. Keep the props, storyline, and Authoring Related - Crack Key For U simple. When you’re done, leave everything out to symbolize your point to your audience. Whatever you do, don’t play it safe. If you do, your speech will be forgotten in no time.

9) End Strong: In 2004, I attended a Direct Marketing Association (DMA) conference. I don’t recall much about our keynote speaker, except that he was tall and southern. I can’t even remember what his address was about. But I’ll never forget the story he used to close his speech.

The speaker was a friend of Jerry Richardson, owner of the NFL’s Carolina Panthers. A few years earlier, the Panthers had drafted a fiery wide receiver named Steve Smith. While Smith excelled on the field, he was a nightmare in the locker room. Eventually, Smith was arrested for assaulting a teammate during film study.

Already reeling from bad publicity from other player incidents, Richardson was pressured to cut Smith. But he chose a different path. Richardson vowed to spend more time with Smith. He decided that Smith would be better served with guidance and caring than further punishment. Eventually, Richardson’s patience paid off. Smith became the Panthers’ all-time leading receiver – and scored a touchdown in their only Super Bowl appearance. In fact, Smith still plays for the Panthers to this day.

If the speaker intended to remind me how powerful that personal attention and forgiveness could be, he succeeded in spades. Fact is, your close is what your audience will remember. So recap your biggest takeaway. Tie everything together. Share a success story. Make a call to action. Don’t hold anything back. Your ending is what audience will ultimately talk about when they head out the door.

10) Keep it Short: What is the worst sin of public speaking? It’s trying to do too much! Your audience’s attention will naturally wane after a few minutes. They have other places to be – and don’t want to be held hostage. And the longer you stay on stage, the more likely you are to stray and make mistakes. So make your points and sit down. Never forget: This is their time, not yours.

Источник: https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffschmitt/2013/07/16/10-keys-to-writing-a-speech/

Top 10 codes, keys and ciphers

If knowledge is power, then the key to power lies in unlocking secrets. For thousands of years, ciphers have been used to hide those secrets from prying eyes in a cat-and-mouse game of code-makers versus code-breakers. These are some of history’s most famous codes.

1. The Caesar shift

Named after Julius Caesar, who used it to encode his military messages, the Caesar shift is as simple as a cipher gets. All you have to do is substitute each letter in the alphabet by shifting it right or left by a specific number of letters. Today, we can break this code in our sleep, but it took ancient codebreakers 800 years to learn how to crack it - and nearly another 800 years to come up with anything better.

2. Alberti’s disk

In 1467, architect Leon Battista Alberti described a curious device. It was a disk made up of two concentric rings: the outer ring engraved with a standard alphabet, and the inner ring, engraved with the same alphabet but written out of order. By rotating the inner ring and matching letters across the disk, a message could be enciphered, one letter at a time, in a fiendishly complex way.

3. The Vigenère square

This 16th-century cipher uses a keyword to generate a series of different Caesar shifts within the same message. Though simple to use, this method of coding resisted all attempts to break it for over 300 years, earning it the nickname “le chiffre indéchiffrable”: the undecipherable cipher.

4. The Shugborough inscription

On the Shepherds’ Monument in Staffordshire’s Shugborough Hall, an unknown craftsman carved eight mysterious letters - OUOSVAVV - between two other letters, D and M. Thousands of would-be code-breakers, including Charles Darwin and Charles Dickens, have searched without success for the meaning behind this inscription. More recently, some have claimed this cipher points to the hidden location of the Holy Grail.

5. The Voynich manuscript

This extraordinary codex from the 15th century is filled with bizarre illustrations and written in a unique alphabet that no one has ever identified. To this day, we’re not sure if the manuscript contains valuable secrets, the ravings of a madman, or is simply a centuries-old hoax.

6. Hieroglyphs

When no one is left who knows how to read a language, it becomes a secret code of its own. That’s exactly what happened with the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt. These beautiful, iconic characters baffled linguists for centuries, until Napoleon’s troops discovered the Rosetta Stone, which allowed scholars to match the hieroglyphs with known Greek words, giving us the key to understanding the language and culture of one of the greatest civilizations in history.

7. The Enigma machine

This infamous Nazi coding device may have looked like a typewriter, but hidden inside was the most complex cryptographic system of rotors and gears yet devised. Allied code-breakers - including British genius Alan Turing and his team at Bletchley Park - worked day and night for years, building machines called bombes to crack the Germans’ military messages. Their efforts are estimated to have shortened the war by as much as two years, saving millions of lives.

8. Kryptos

In 1990, the CIA teased its own analysts by installing a sculpture with a complex four-part code on the grounds of its Langley headquarters. To date, only three of the four parts have been solved. If you’re looking for a job as a codebreaker, try cracking the last one - as long as you don’t mind getting a visit from the Men in Black.

9. RSA encryption

For most of our history, ciphers required both coder and decoder to have the same key to unlock it. But in the 1970s, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found a way to encode messages safely without sharing the key beforehand. Called public-key cryptography, this type of security protects most electronic communications today. It’s not known if it can be cracked, but if you figured out a way, you’d own pretty much everything on the internet!

10. The Pioneer plaques

Our final code is one we sent to others - and I really mean others. Attached to the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, these gold-aluminium plaques depict us, our solar system, and our location in the universe, and are encoded with one of the properties of hydrogen as the key to decipher our message. Travelling through the vastness of space, it’s unlikely any alien civilisation will discover these probes. But if they do, we’ll have passed on to them our love of knowledge - and the secrets we use to hide it.

Kevin Sands is the author of The Blackthorn Key, about a young apothecary called Christopher Rowe who must crack a code in order to thwart a murder.  Find out more about Kevin Sands and his book on his facebook page. Buy The Blackthorn Key at the Guardian bookshop. 

Источник: https://www.theguardian.com/childrens-books-site/2015/sep/10/top-10-codes-keys-and-ciphers

rekordbox

Requirement of a license key depends on how the product is used, and which model you are using.

EXPORT mode

No license key required.
In this mode, you can use music management, transfer tracks to your USB device, use PRO DJ LINK, make recordings, and perform other functions.

PERFORMANCE mode

A rekordbox dj license key is required(*).
In this mode, you can perform a DJ mix with rekordbox.
If you have a product that comes with a rekordbox dj license key, use the accompanying key.
*A license key is not required when connected to DDJ-200.

When using additional functions (PlusPack)

If you are using an additional function such as rekordbox dvs, rekordbox video, RMX EFFCTS, or rekordbox lyric, you have to use a rekordbox dj license key and the relevant license key for that feature.

https://rekordbox.com/en/support/faq/v5-license/#faq-q500477

Источник: https://rekordbox.com/en/support/faq/v5-license/

Writing, erasing and reading histone lysine methylations

Abstract

Histone modifications are key epigenetic regulatory features that have important roles in many cellular events. Lysine methylations mark various sites on the tail and globular domains of histones and their levels are precisely balanced by the action of methyltransferases (‘writers’) and demethylases (‘erasers’). In addition, distinct effector proteins (‘readers’) recognize specific methyl-lysines in a manner that depends on the neighboring amino-acid sequence and methylation state. Misregulation of histone lysine methylation has been implicated in several cancers and developmental defects. Therefore, histone lysine methylation has been considered a potential therapeutic target, and clinical trials of several inhibitors of this process have shown promising results. A more detailed understanding of histone lysine methylation is necessary for elucidating complex biological processes and, ultimately, for developing and improving disease treatments. This review summarizes enzymes responsible for histone lysine methylation and demethylation and how histone lysine methylation contributes to various biological processes.

Introduction

In eukaryotic cells, genetic information stored in DNA is present in a highly organized chromatin structure. The nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin, is composed of two copies of each core histone, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, wrapped by about two turns of DNA.1 Protruding unstructured N-terminal tails as well as structured globular domains of each histone are subject to post-translational modifications that include methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, among others.2, 3 These histone modifications affect chromatin structure and also provide binding platforms for diverse transcription factors, such as chromatin remodelers, histone chaperones, DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and general transcription factors.2, 3 Thus, histone modifications have important roles in many cellular events, including gene expression, DNA replication and repair, chromatin compaction and cell-cycle control.2, 3 Misregulation of histone modifications has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and in developmental defects, further emphasizing the importance of the regulation of histone modifications.4, 5

Although histone methylation and its involvement in transcription were first reported in the 1960s,6 it was only about 15 years ago that the first histone methyltransferase, SUV39H1, containing a catalytic SET (Su(var)3–9, Enhancer of Zeste, and Trithorax) domain, was identified,7 igniting discoveries of numerous histone methyltransferases based on SET-domain homology searches.8 Until the discovery of an H3K4 demethylase LSD1 (lysine-specific histone demethylase 1),9 histone methylations had been thought to turn over more slowly than other histone modifications. The subsequent discovery of the JmjC (jumonji C) domain as a key signature of demethylating enzymes10 has substantially broadened our repertoire of histone demethylases.

There are three lysine methylation states—mono- di- and trimethylation (me1, me2 and me3, respectively)—none of which changes the electronic charge of the amino-acid side chain; therefore, histone lysine methylation functions are considered to be mainly exerted by effector molecules that specifically recognize the methylated site.11 These ‘reader’ proteins contain methyl-lysine-binding motifs, including PHD, chromo, tudor, PWWP, WD40, BAH, ADD, ankyrin repeat, MBT and zn-CW domains, and also have the ability to distinguish target methyl-lysines based on their methylation state and surrounding amino-acid sequence.12

Unlike other histone modifications, which simply specify active or repressed chromatin states, histone lysine methylations confer active or repressive transcription depending on their positions and methylation states.13 Generally, H3K4, H3K36 and H3K79 methylations are considered to mark active transcription, whereas H3K9, H3K27 and H4K20 methylations are thought to be associated with silenced chromatin states.13 These histone lysine methylations also interact with other histone modifications as well as DNA methylation to regulate precisely gene expression. For example, H3K4 and H3K79 methylations are known to require prior H2B ubiquitylation in yeast.14 Also, bivalent chromatins marked simultaneously by H3K4 and H3K27 methylations have an important role in shifting gene expression from a poised state to active or inactive states in embryonic stem cells (ESCs).15

Numerous studies have shown that mutation or misregulation of histone methylation, methyltransferases, demethylases and methyl-lysine-binding proteins are associated with various diseases.16 Therefore, many histone methylation-related proteins are being studied as potential therapeutic targets.17 Recent advances in next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM techniques for analyzing histone modification-related proteins have allowed a more detailed understanding of relationship between histone methylation and diseases.3, 18

In this review, we summarize how histone lysine methylations are regulated by histone methyltransferases (‘writers’) and demethylases (‘erasers’), as depicted in Figure 1. We also discuss the biological roles of histone lysine methylations and associated diseases caused by misregulation of histone lysine methylations, as summarized in Table 1.

A schematic depiction of a nucleosome showing principal lysine methylation sites on histones H3 and H4. The reported writers (methyltransferases) and erasers (demethylases) for each lysine methylation are also depicted with their methylation state specificities: single circle (), me1; double circle (), me2; triple circle (), me3.

Full size image

Full size table

H3K4 methylation

H3K4 methyltransferases

H3K4 methylation is an evolutionarily conserved histone modification that marks active transcription and is highly enriched at the promoter region and transcription start site.19 In yeast, all H3K4 methylations are carried out by Set1 methyltransferase, which forms a multisubunit Set1complex, also known as COMPASS, with seven other subunits: Swd1, Swd3, Bre2, Sdc1, Swd2, Spp1 and Shg1.20, 21, 22 Set1 contains a catalytic SET domain, in which H3K4 methyltransferase activity is assisted by associated Swd1, Swd3, Bre2 and Sdc1 subunits. The loss of individual Set1 complex subunits differentially affects Set1 stability, complex integrity, global H3K4 methylation level and distribution of H3K4 methylation along active genes.23 H3K4 methyltransferases are highly conserved from yeast to human. Drosophila melanogaster contain three Set1 homologs (SET1, TRX and TRR), whereas mammals have six such homologs (SET1A/KMT2F, SET1B/KMT2G, MLL1 (mixed-lineage leukemia 1)/KMT2A, MLL2/KMT2B, MLL3/KMT2C and MLL4/KMT2D).19 Each Set1 homolog, which functions as a scaffold protein within the complexes, associates with four common subunits (WRAD: WDR5 (WD repeat domain 5), RbBP5 (retinoblastoma-binding protein 5), ASH2L (absent, small or homeotic-2 like) and DPY30), as well as unique subunits that specify distinct functions.19

The association of WRAD with the SET domain of each SET1/MLL family protein (core complex) produces distinct enzymatic properties. The SET domain of MLL1 alone exhibits weak H3K4 monomethylation activity, but complex formation with WRAD allows it to predominantly mono- and dimethylate H3K4 in vitro.24 The interaction of WDR5 with the MLL1 SET domain is crucial for association of ASH2L and RbBP5 with the MLL1 SET domain and H3K4 dimethylation activity of the assembled MLL1 core complex.25, 26 Biochemical analyses with purified proteins have further shown that MLL1/2 core complexes can catalyze H3K4 mono- and dimethylation, whereas the specificity of MLL3/4 core complexes is restricted to H3K4me1.27 These observations indicate that WRAD proteins participate differentially in H3K4 methylation process in each SET1/MLL complex. How SET1/MLL family complexes differentially regulate H3K4 methylation is not precisely known. One possible mechanism is that distinct amino acids within the SET domain of each SET1/MLL proteins, in conjunction with WRAD proteins, create different active sites that differentially modulate H3K4 methyltransferase activity.

In addition to WRAD proteins, unique subunits in each SET1/MLL complex also have roles in regulating H3K4 methylation. For example, it has been shown that WDR82 (WD repeat domain 82) and CFP1 (CXXC finger protein 1) are required for appropriate levels of SET1A/B complex-mediated H3K4 trimethylation.28, 29 More specifically, CFP1 directly binds to unmethylated CpG islands through its CXXC domain and regulates the genome-wide distribution of H3K4me3 in ESCs.30, 31 H3K4me3 levels in specific genes are dependent on the MLL1/2-specific subunit menin during initiation and progression of sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors.32 PTIP (Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein), a unique subunit of MLL3/MLL4, has been shown to regulate H3K4me3 levels at the Ntrk3 (neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3) locus, whose function is important for podocyte foot process patterning.33 These results indicate that unique subunits in SET1/MLL complexes interact with distinct transcription factors and thus have important roles in the expression of specific target genes for given SET1/MLL complexes.

Structural analyses have recently begun to aid our understanding of the detailed molecular mechanism of H3K4 methylation. A cryo-EM analysis of partial yeast Set1 (SET domain plus Swd1, Swd3, Bre2 and Sdc1) and human MLL1 (SET domain plus WRAD) complexes revealed that the two subunits, Swd1 (RbBP5) and Swd3 (WDR5), are positioned in the top lobe of the Y-shaped structure, whereas Bre2 (ASH2L) and Sdc1 (DPY30) occupy the bottom base.34 A recent X-ray crystallographic analysis of human MLL1-SET/RbBP5/ASH2L and MLL3-SET/RbBP5/ASH2L complexes found that association of heterodimeric RbBP5/ASH2L with the MLL SET scaffold stabilizes the catalytic SET domain and further showed that substrate binding induces a conformational change in the active site that facilitates H3K4 methylation.35 A structural understanding of H3K4 methyltransferase complexes has only begun to be established. Notably, difficulties in biochemical purification of high-molecular-weight and multisubunit complexes have hampered structural analyses of any holo-H3K4 methyltransferase complex. Continuing efforts should ultimately afford a detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of H3K4 methyltransferase complexes.

H2B ubiquitylation-dependent H3K4 methylation in yeast was the first-discovered histone trans-tail relationship, where H3K4 di- and trimethylation were shown to require prior monoubiquitylation at lysine 123 (corresponding to lysine 120 in mammalian cells) of histone H2B.36, 37, 38, 39 Following up on this interesting relationship, two groups reported that Swd2 is a key player in this process, although through different mechanisms.40, 41 However, this assertion was challenged by a biochemical analysis showing that the Set1 complex lacking Swd2 exhibits even higher H2B ubiquitylation-dependent H3K4 methylation activity.42 Instead, the authors of this latter study showed that the n-SET domain within Set1 is essential for H2B ubiquitylation-mediated H3K4 methylation activity of the Set1 complex.42 The H2B ubiquitylation dependence of human H3K4 methyltransferases is unclear, because reducing H2B ubiquitylation by knocking down the human homologs of Bre1 (BRE1A/RNF20 and BRE1B/RNF40) results in only a partial decrease in H3K4 methylation in human cells.43, 44, 45 The incompleteness of this decrease is probably attributable to inefficient knockdown of Bre1 proteins. Interestingly, however, these studies also suggest that six human H3K4 methyltransferase complexes may differentially require H2B ubiquitylation for their H3K4 methylation activity.

H3K4 demethylases

Until the identification of the FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)-dependent nuclear amine oxidase LSD1 (also known as KDM1A), the first histone H3K4 demethylase discovered,9 histone methylation was believed to be stable and inheritable. LSD1, and the related LSD2/KDM1B, can demethylate H3K4me1 and H3K4me2.9, 46 It has been shown that LSD1 is recruited to target genes by CoREST- BHC80- and SFMBT1-containing repressive complexes and members of the zinc-finger transcription factor family, Snail.47, 48, 49 In addition to amine oxidases, JARID1 (jumonji AT-rich interactive domain-1) family proteins (JARID1A/KDM5A, JARID1B/KDM5B, JARID1C/KDM5C and JARID1D/KDM5D) and the JmjC domain-containing protein NO66 (also known as MAPJD)50 were found to demethylate H3K4. NO66 is able to demethylate all three states of H3K4 methylation using α-ketoglutarate and Fe(II) as cofactors,51 whereas JARID1A, JARID1B, JARID1C and JARID1D were shown to be specific for demethylation of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3.52, 53, 54, 55 These proteins function as transcriptional corepressors by demethylating H3K4 or recruiting other corepressors.56, 57

Distribution of H3K4 methylation

Gene expression is associated with the position of histone methyl-lysine residues within genes and their degree of methylation. H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 have been shown to differentially mark actively transcribing genes. H3K4me1 is highly enriched at enhancers, H3K4me2 is highest toward the 5′ end of transcribing genes, and H3K4me3 is a hallmark of the promoters of actively transcribing and poised genes.58, 59, 60, 61 Although the strong correlation between H3K4 methylation and active transcription is well documented, how SET1/MLL methyltransferase complexes are recruited to specific gene loci is still an open question. However, it has been shown that SET1/MLL complex subunits HCF-1 (host cell factor-1) and menin are required for proper recruitment of these complexes to herpesvirus immediate early promoters and HOX genes, respectively.62, 63 In addition, cell-type-specific transcription factors and cofactors were also shown to mediate recruitment of H3K4 methyltransferases. For example, the transcription factors bZIP28 and bZIP60 bring SET1/MLL complexes to endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes through interactions with Ash2 and WDR5a.64 A direct interaction with p53 was shown to be responsible for recruitment of the SET1 complex to DNA damage-responsive genes.65 In addition, it was reported that the Paf1 transcription elongation complex mediates interactions between Set1 and the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II such that the Set1 complex can be recruited to transcribing genes.66

Transcriptional coactivators that recognize H3K4 methylation

Each state of H3K4 methylation recruits distinct downstream effectors containing specific ‘reader’ domains that further regulate gene expression. Several chromatin remodelers are known to read H3K4 methylation and participate in the regulation of gene expression. For example, the ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzyme, CHD1, recognizes H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 through its two N-terminal chromodomains.67 In addition, BPTF (bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor), a subunit of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor), was shown to interact with H3K4me3 via its PHD domain.68 As an example of a general transcription factor that binds to H3K4 methylation, transcription factor IID was shown to be recruited to H3K4me3 through its PHD domain-containing TAF3 subunit, resulting in more efficient preinitiation complex formation.69, 70

The activity of several histone-modifying enzymes is modulated by recognition of H3K4 methylation. For instance, the yeast SAGA complex binds to H3K4me2 or H3K4me3 through its Sgf29 subunit, which contains a C-terminal H3K4me2- or H3K4me3-binding tudor domain, and thus efficiently acetylates neighboring histones.71 The acetyltransferase activity of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex can be efficiently targeted to H3K14 through recognition of H3K4me3 by the Yng1 subunit, which contains a PHD domain.72 In addition, the HBO1 histone acetyltransferase complex was reported to acetylate histone H3 in a manner that depends on the PHD domain-containing ING4 (inhibitor of growth family member 4) subunit and facilitates apoptosis by enhancing the expression of genotoxic stress-responsive genes.73

In addition, H3K4 methyl-binding domains within H3K4 methyltransferase complexes further contribute to the precise regulation of their enzymatic activities. For example, the PHD domain-dependent binding of CFP1 to H3K4me3 is responsible for recruitment of SET1A/B complexes to H3K4me3-containing chromatin regions.74 CFP1 was also found to be required for deposition of H3K4me3 near the promoters of DNA damage-responsive genes in ESCs.75 Among MLL family H3K4 methyltransferases, only MLL1 is recruited through its PHD domain to regulate HOX gene expression. The roles of PHD domains within other Authoring Related - Crack Key For U family proteins remain to be characterized.76, 77

H3K4 methylation and cancers

Mutations in H3K4 methyltransferases highly increase the susceptibility to various cancers.78 About 70% of infant leukemia is related to chromosomal translocation of MLL1 genes, which results in fusion of its N-terminal fragment to more than 50 partner proteins. MLL1 translocations are also frequently found in mixed-lineage leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.79 Interestingly, aberrant H3K4 methylation caused by MLL1-AF9 fusion proteins was shown to require an intact MLL1 protein.80 Therefore, considerable effort has been devoted to developing inhibitors that target MLL1 as a cancer therapy strategy. Although inhibitors that directly target the MLL1 SET domain have not yet been discovered, the chemical compounds MM102 and MM-401, which specifically disrupt the interaction between WDR5 and MLL1, but not other SET1/MLL family methyltransferases, Authoring Related - Crack Key For U been reported to inhibit proliferation of leukemia cells.81, 82

Mutations in H3K4 demethylases are also related to a number of diseases. JARID1 family proteins often function as transcriptional corepressors that are important for expression of development-related genes. JARID1A was shown to be important in regulating HOX gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.52 It has also been reported that cryptic fusion of NUP98 (nucleoporin 98) and JARID1A causes HOXA/B gene overexpression and results in pediatric acute leukemia in humans.83 Increased expression of JARID1B, often found in breast carcinomas and testicular cancer, causes misregulation of 14-3-3σ, BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), CAV1 (caveolin 1) and HOXA5 (homeobox A5) genes.53 X-linked mental retardation patients have a large number of sense or missense mutations in JARID1C genes, implying an important role for the encoded protein during brain development.84 In addition, a number of inhibitors have been developed for LSD1, which is involved in embryonic development and hematopoiesis, and many types of cancer. Some of these inhibitors were designed to irreversibly deactivate LSD1 by forming a covalent adduct with the cofactor FAD within LSD1.85

H3K4 and H3K27 methylations and bivalent domains in ESCs

Bivalent chromatin has an important role in regulating changes in gene expression from poised to active or inactive states in ESCs.15 In bivalent promoters, coenrichment of active H3K4me3 and repressive H3K27me3 marks was shown be responsible for differentiation into specific cell types.61, 86 It was further found that MLL2 is mainly responsible for H3K4 methylation on bivalent promoters.87, 88 H3K27 methylation is an abundant modification that is crucial for fate determination in ESCs. In embryonic fibroblast cells, H3K27me3 was shown to be highly enriched at the promoters of thousands of genes that are responsible for embryonic development and differentiation.89 Subunits of the H3K4 methyltransferase complex also participate in ESC fate determination. For example, WDR5 interacts with Oct4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) and mediates H3K4 methylation at key development loci in ESCs.90 During ESC differentiation, ASH2L downregulation correlates with decreased expression of pluripotent transcription factors and increased expression of differentiation-related genes.91 In addition, a specific role for DPY30 in the differentiation of ESCs, but not the maintenance of their self-renewal capacity, has also been reported.92

H3K9 methylation

H3K9 methyltransferases

H3K9 methylation is a histone modification that is a well-known indicator of silenced transcription and heterochromatin structure.86 Fission yeast has a single H3K9 methyltransferase (Clr4/KMT1) that is responsible for all three states of H3K9 methylation93 and regulates silencing at pericentromere and mating-type loci.94, 95 In mammalian cells, several H3K9 methyltransferases—SUV39H1/KMT1A, SUV39H2/KMT1B, SETDB1/KMT1E, dimeric G9a/KMT1C-GLP (G9a-like protein)/KMT1D and PRDM family—with different catalytic activities and target genes, have roles in diverse cellular events.96 SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 catalyze H3K9 di- and trimethylation in constitutive heterochromatin, including the pericentromeric region.7, 97 Recombinant SUV39H1/2 proteins were shown to possess H3K9 mono- di- and trimethylation activity;98 however, a cell line lacking SUV39H1/2 proteins was shown to lose H3K9me2 and H3K9me3, but not H3K9me1, marks.99 SETDB1 catalyzes H3K9 monomethylation at the pericentromeric region and provides a substrate for SUV39H1/2 to produce H3K9me3.100 Another H3K9 methyltransferase, a heterodimer of G9a and GLP (G9a-GLP), mono- and dimethylates H3K9 in euchromatin regions to repress gene expression.101 When either G9a or GLP is deleted, H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 levels are reduced in euchromatin. Interestingly, in vitro analyses have shown that G9a and GLP can individually form homodimers that exhibit H3K9 mono- di- and trimethylation activity.98, 102 In a related observation, the multi-zinc-finger-containing protein Wiz interacts with the G9a-GLP heterodimer and stabilizes its conformation,103 indicating that Wiz-assisted G9a-GLP heterodimer formation is crucial for modulation of G9a-GLP enzymatic activity in vivo.104 Several PRDM (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology domain) proteins also contribute to H3K9 methylation. Among 17 members of the PRDM family (PRDM1–17), all of which contain a PR domain similar to the SET domain,105 several are known to possess intrinsic H3K9 methyltransferase activity, whereas the remaining members regulate H3K9 methylation by interacting with other H3K9 methyltransferases, such as G9a.106 However, whether PRDM protein-mediated regulation of H3K9 methylation is direct or indirect is still controversial, and more detailed biochemical studies are necessary to clarify this issue.

H3K9 demethylases

Three classes of mammalian proteins—JHDM2/KDM3, JHDM3(JMJD2)/KDM4 and PHF8/KDM7—have H3K9 demethylation activity. Three JHDM2 (jumonji domain-containing histone demethylase-2) family proteins (JHDM2A–C) have the ability to demethylate H3K9me1 and H3K9me2107 and regulate hormone-dependent transcriptional activation.108 JHDM3 family proteins can demethylate H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 in addition to H3K36me2 and H3K36me3 in vitro.107, 108, 109 PHF8, a member of the PHF (PHD finger) protein family that acts as a demethylase for H3K9me1 and H3K9me2,110 is a mononuclear Fe(II)-dependent hydroxylase that uses 2-oxoglutarate and oxygen as cosubstrates.111 Because PHF8, like other members of the PHF family, contains a PHD domain, it preferentially removes H3K9 methylations from H3K4me3-containing histone peptide substrates.112 This activity would largely account for the mutually exclusive distribution of H3K4 and H3K9 methylations.

Cross-talk between H3K9 methylation and DNA methylation

A number of studies have reported physical and functional interactions between H3K9 methyltransferases and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). For example, SUV39H1/2 and DNMT3A/B interact which each other and can be recruited via their interaction with HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) to methylate H3K9-enriched constitutive heterochromatin regions, thereby reinforcing the condensed chromatin structure.113, 114 In addition, DNMT3A/B interacts with G9a-GLP and is involved in facultative heterochromatin formation in ESCs.115, 116 Moreover, the fact that G9a, DNMT1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) are colocalized at the replication fork117 implicates H3K9 methylation in the maintenance of DNA methylation during DNA replication. UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and ring finger domain 1) also has been reported to have a role in maintaining DNA methylation by bringing DNMT1 to the replication fork through its interaction with methylated H3K9, hemimethylated CpG and DNMT1.117, 118 Furthermore, the methyl-CpG-binding protein MBD1 was shown to recruit SETDB1 to the chromatin assembly complex CAF-1, facilitating SETDB1-mediated methylation of H3K9 on newly deposited nucleosomes.119

Establishment of pericentromeric heterochromatin

SETDB1 and SUV39H1/2 are recruited to pericentromeric heterochromatin and catalyze H3K9 methylation.7, 100, 120 HP1α and HP1β bind to H3K9me3 through their chromodomains and form multimers that interact with SUV39H1/2. As SUV39H1/2 also contains a chromodomain, they can be further recruited to methylated H3K9 at the pericentromeric region by HP1α/β as well as by themselves.97, 121 These multiple interactions enable SUV39H1/2 to spread H3K9me3 to neighboring nucleosomes.122 HP1α/β contributes to heterochromatin formation by recruiting many other proteins involved in heterochromatin formation, such as histone deacetylase, transcriptional repressors and chromatin remodelers.123, 124, 125 H3K9 methylation also increases nucleosome occupancy and has an important role in maintaining transposon repression in pericentromeric heterochromatin.126 In fission yeast and plants, heterochromatin formation mediated by interactions of methylated H3K9 with the RNA interference machinery has been well established.127, 128

H3K9 methylation-mediated transcriptional repression

The G9a-GLP heterodimer deposits H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 and represses target gene expression.101 G9a-GLP can be recruited to target gene promoters through direct interactions with diverse DNA-binding proteins.103, 129, 130, 131 Once it binds and methylates H3K9 on target genes, G9a-GLP recruits additional dimers through its ankyrin repeat domain and spreads H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 to neighboring nucleosomes.101 The resulting repression of gene expression is crucial in many biological processes, such as memory formation, immune responses and differentiation.132, 133, 134 During ESC differentiation, G9a/GLP-mediated facultative heterochromatin formation silences Oct3/4 and Nanog.101 Furthermore, G9a-GLP regulates H3K9me2 and represses different sets of genes in a tissue-specific manner. G9a/GLP-mediated silencing also represses non-neuronal genes in neurons135 and skeletal muscle genes in brown adipose tissue.136 In the immune system, H3K9me2 inhibits uncontrolled interferon induction and regulates naïve T-helper cell differentiation.133 Moreover, H3K9me2 is dynamically altered in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex in response to contextual fear conditioning, and mediates memory formation.132 These observations indicate that the distribution of H3K9me2 in euchromatin is dynamically altered according to cell type and external stimuli. Collectively, the results of these studies imply that G9a-GLP interacts with a large number of DNA-binding proteins in different contexts. Numerous studies have revealed that diverse biological processes are regulated by H3K9 methylation. However, only a few downstream target genes, and no upstream regulators of H3K9 methyltransferases, have been identified. Clarifying the detailed molecular mechanisms by which H3K9 methyltransferases mediate transcriptional repression will require a greater effort to identify upstream regulators that bring H3K9 methyltransferases to target genes.

Interestingly, it has been reported that H3K9me3 and HP1γ are enriched in the coding region of certain active genes in several cell lines.137 In contrast to HP1α/β, HP1γ recruits elongating RNA polymerase II and induces gene expression.137 Consistent with this, the D. melanogaster HP1γ homolog, HP1c, recruits the histone chaperone FACT to RNA polymerase II and enhances transcription elongation of heat-shock genes.138

H3K9 methylation and alternative splicing

Alternative splicing is regulated by nucleosome occupancy and post-translational modifications in transcribing genes.139, 140 A recent study has revealed that local increases in H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 enhance exon inclusion, whereas H3K9 demethylation correlates with exon skipping. Moreover, a genome-wide study showed that H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 are enriched in internal exons.141 Although how H3K9 methylation facilitates exon inclusion is not fully understood, two hypotheses have been proposed. First, H3K9 methylation-bound HP1γ could recruit the splicing regulatory protein SRSF1 for efficient splicing.142 Alternatively, H3K9 methylation would increase nucleosome occupancy and slow down RNA polymerase II elongation, prolonging the time for RNA splicing.143, 144

H3K9 methylation-related diseases

H3K9 methylation is often misregulated in various diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction and cancer.145, 146 In a mouse Alzheimer disease model, aberrantly increased H3K9 methylation levels in the BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) gene leads to downregulation of BDNF expression in neurons. BDNF is critical for synaptic plasticity; hence, reduced BDNF levels are thought to be an important contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.147 In addition, overexpression of SETDB1 and elevated levels of H3K9 methylation are often found in Huntington disease patients.148 Although a correlation between abnormal H3K9 methylation and neurodegenerative diseases is well established, more studies are required to identify target genes through which misregulated H3K9 methylation causes these diseases.

Uncontrolled H3K9 methylation is also linked to cancer. In particular, G9a is often overexpressed in various types of cancer.149, 150, 151 Overexpression of G9a hypermethylates H3K9 on tumor suppressor genes and thus represses their expression. The tumor suppressors, DSC3 (desmocollin 3) and MASPIN (mammary serine protease inhibitor) in breast cancer152 and CDH1 (cadherin 1), DUSP5 (dual specificity phosphatase 5) and SPRY4 (sprouty homolog 4) in ovarian cancer,149 are often silenced by G9a. These results suggest that H3K9 methyltransferases could be good therapeutic targets in cancer treatment.

H3K27 methylation

H3K27 methyltransferases

H3K27me3 is a hallmark of transcriptional repression. The EZH2 (enhancer-of-zest homolog 2) subunit (also known as KMT6A) within PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex 2) complex, an evolutionarily conserved class of polycomb group proteins, is an H3K27 methyltransferase153 responsible for all three states of H3K27 methylation.154, 155, 156 The mammalian PRC2 complex is composed of four core subunits: EZH1/2, SUZ12, EED and RbAp46/48.157, 158 PRC2 can also associate with other accessory proteins, such as AEBP2 (AE binding protein 2), JARID2 and PCLs (polycomb-like proteins).159 These accessory proteins are thought to be involved in recruiting PRC2 to target genes and regulating its activity.158 EZH1/2 alone has no enzyme activity, but incorporation into a PRC2 complex with other subunits enables it to methylate H3K27.160, 161 The PRC2 subunits SUZ12 and EED have the ability to bind the histone H3 N-terminal tail and H3K27me3, respectively. Thus, a positive feedback mechanism is used to spread H3K27me3-repressive marks to adjacent gene loci.162, 163, 164

H3K27 demethylases

UTX/KDM6A, UTY/KDM6C and JMJD3/KDM6B demethylate H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 and are primarily involved in gene derepression.165, 166, 167 UTX contains six TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains and one JmjC domain. The evolutionarily conserved TPR domain mediates multisubunit complex assembly.165 UTX, one of the subunits in the MLL4 H3K4 methyltransferase complex, mediates crosstalk between H3K4 and H3K27 methylations.168 Interestingly, UTX target genes responsible for cancer proliferation and invasiveness are also regulated by MLL4, as evidenced by the fact that individual knockdown of UTX or MLL4 phenocopies the traits of breast cancer cells.169 JMJD3, a JmjC-domain-containing protein that catalyzes demethylation of H3K27me2 and H3K27me3,165 activates transcription of development-related genes and directs differentiation of ESCs into definitive endoderm.170 Microbial stimuli cause nuclear factor-κB-mediated enrichment of JMJD3 at the transcription start site of lipopolysaccharide-responsive genes in macrophages.171 PHF subfamily proteins, including KIAA1718/KDM7A and PHF8, also demethylate H3K27 using α-ketoglutarate and iron as cofactors. KIAA1718 contains PHD and JmjC domains, which allow selective demethylation of H3K27me2 on H3K4-trimethylated nucleosomes.112 The JmjC domain-containing PHF8 is specific for H3K27me2.110

Maintenance of gene repression

The PRC2 subunit EED also binds to H3K27me3 through its WD40 domain, and disruption of this interaction leads to reduced H3K27 methylation and developmental defects.162 Binding of PRC2 to H3K27me3 spreads H3K27 methylation to neighboring nucleosomes, and thus has and important role in the maintenance of gene-expression status. Consistent with a repressive role of H3K27 methylation, the inactivated X chromosome in mammalian cells is highly enriched for H3K27 methylation, which stabilizes the inactive chromatin structure.172

H3K27 methylation and cancers

Misregulation of H3K27 methylation is associated with tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. In this context, overexpression of the PRC2 subunit EZH2 has been reported in human breast and prostate cancers as well as lymphoma.173, 174, 175, 176 For instance, an Y641F mutation in the EZH2 SET domain increases H3K27me3 levels and contributes to the pathogenesis of germinal center B-cell lymphomas.177 In addition, another EZH2 mutant lymphoma cell line harboring an A677G mutation shows elevated levels of H3K27me3 and decreased levels of H3K27me2 and H3K27me1. A structural study reported that the A677G mutation enlarges the lysine tunnel, enhancing the ability of PRC2 to catalyze H3K27 dimethylation.178 These results suggest that inhibition of hyperactive PRC2 could be a potential treatment strategy for specific types of lymphoma. In this regard, several EZH2 inhibitors that target B-cell and follicular lymphomas have been developed.17 For example, the EZH2 inhibitor GSK126 was shown to decrease global levels of H3K27 methylation, reactivate PCR2 target genes, and decrease tumor progression in a mouse model.179

H3K27 methylation can be recognized by chromodomain- and WD40 domain-containing proteins. Among several chromodomain-containing proteins that bind to H3K27 methylation, the PRC1 complex subunit CBX7 (chromobox 7) has received attention as a therapeutic target owing to its involvement in tumorigenesis as well as stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. The recently developed chemical compound, MS37452, binds the methyl-binding pocket of the chromodomain of CBX7, resulting in transcriptional derepression of PRC1 complex target genes and inhibition of the proliferation of prostate cancers.180

H3K36 methylation

H3K36 methyltransferases

In yeast, a single H3K36 methyltransferase, Set2/KMT3, catalyzes all three states of H3K36 methylation.181 The SRI (Set2 Rpb1 interacting) domain in Set2 enables it to interact with the S2- and S5-phosphorylated C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and methylate H3K36 during transcriptional elongation.181 Mammalian cells contain at least eight H3K36 methyltransferases: NSD1/KMT3B, NSD2/KMT3G, NSD3/KMT3F, SETD2/KMT3A, SETD3, SETMAR, SMYD2/KMT3C and ASH1L/KMT2H.182 Among these, NSD1–3 and SETD2 are considered major H3K36 methyltransferases. Only SETD2 can catalyze H3K36 trimethylation, whereas the methyltransferase activity of the other seven enzymes is restricted to H3K36 mono- and/or dimethylation.183 NSD (nuclear receptor-binding SET domain) enzymes have additional methylation sites on histones as well as non-histone target proteins.184 Biochemical analyses have shown that NSD enzymes lose their H3K36 specificity if histone octamers are used as a substrate instead of physiologically relevant nucleosomes.184 From a structural perspective, NSD1–3 enzymes have an autoinhibitory loop that blocks the substrate-binding site. Interaction of a short segment of nucleosomal DNA appears to interact with the autoinhibitory loop, dislodging it from the substrate-binding site. Therefore, H3K36 located close to the nucleosome core region can enter the substrate-binding site, thus imparting H3K36 specificity on NSD enzymes.185 The H3K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 has important roles in many biological processes.186, 187, 188, 189 Although recombinant SETD2 was shown to generate all three states of H3K36 methylation in vitro, only H3K36me3 levels were found to decrease in SETD2-knockdown cells.186, 187 In addition, it was reported that not only H3K36me1 and H3K36me2 levels but also H3K36me3 levels are decreased in NSD1–3-deficient cells.190 These results suggest that NSD enzymes provide H3K36me1 and H3K36me2 to SETD2, which then subsequently generates H3K36me3 in vivo.

H3K36 demethylases

There are two H3K36 demethylase families in mammalian cells: JHDM1/KDM2A-B and JHDM3/JMJD2/KDM4A-D. The H3K36me1- and H3K36me2-specific demethylase, JHDM1, contains multiple histone-binding domains, including a PHD domain,10, 191 and it accounts for mutually exclusive distribution of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 in same genes.60, 192 JHDM3 is specific for H3K36me2 and H3K36me3 demethylation and has also been shown to demethylate H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 in vitro.109, 111

Regulation of transcription initiation and elongation

H3K36 methylation has been implicated in preventing abortive initiation of transcription within the gene body and in regulation of transcription elongation. In yeast, Set2 binds to the phosphorylated C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and catalyzes H3K36 methylation in newly deposited nucleosomes.182 The RPD3 deacetylase complex is recruited to nucleosomes through recognition of H3K36me1 and H3K36me2, and then deacetylates histones. Local deacetylation maintains a repressive chromatin state that prevents aberrant transcription initiation.193 In mammalian cells, different players participate in this process. NSD3, LSD2 (lysine demethylase 2) and G9a form a complex that interacts with transcription-elongation factors and the S2-phosphorylated C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. This complex, in turn, maintains newly incorporated nucleosomes in a repressed state by methylating H3K9 and H3K36, and demethylating H3K4.194 Moreover, PWWP domain-containing NSD2 and DNMT3A bind to H3K36-methylated nucleosomes and further contribute to repression of aberrant transcription.194, 195 Collectively, these observations indicate that H3K36 methylation, H3K9 methylation and DNA methylation simultaneously accumulate in newly incorporated nucleosomes to control accurate transcription elongation in mammalian cells.

In addition to its preferential localization to the gene body, H3K36 methylation is also enriched in the promoter region of several genes.196 Promoter-enriched H3K36 methylation inhibits activity of the PRC2 complex and prevents PRC2-mediated expansion of H3K27 methylation.197 This observation is further supported by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses showing a mutually exclusive distribution H3K27 methylation and H3K36 methylation.198

DNA damage responses

Several studies have demonstrated roles of H3K36 methylation in DNA damage repair. SETD2 induces DNA mismatch repair by catalyzing H3K36me3 at mismatch sites.199 In addition, the H3K36 dimethyltransferase, SETMAR, facilitates non-homologous end joining at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites.200 When a DSB occurs, SETMAR is recruited to DSB sites and catalyzes H3K36 methylation. NBS1, a subunit of the MRN complex, and Ku70 recognize H3K36 methylation and stabilize DSB until other non-homologous end-joining -related proteins are recruited. Homologous recombination is also known to be regulated by H3K36me3.201 If a DSB occurs, the H3K36me3-interacting protein LEDGF/p75, also known as PSIP1 (PC4- and SFRS1-interacting protein 1), recruits CtIP (C-terminal-binding protein-interacting protein), which carries out DSB resection. RPA (replication protein A) and RAD51 are then recruited to the site and promote homologous recombination repair.201 In the absence of SETD2, homologous recombination repair cannot be performed properly because reduced H3K36me3 levels lead to dissociation of LEDGF from chromatin. This explains why SETD2 functions as a tumor suppressor. Homologous recombination repair is a very accurate DNA-repair process, and it is usually carried out in H3K36me3-enriched coding regions.183 Therefore, H3K36me3 seems to function as surveillance for DNA damage in coding regions to maintain genome stability.

H3K36 methylation and exon exclusion

Similar to H3K9 methylation, H3K36 methylation also has a role in alternative splicing.139 For example, SETD2-mediated H3K36 trimethylation stimulates exon exclusion.202 H3K36me3-bound MORF4L1 (mortality factor 4-like 1; also known as MRG15) recruits PTB (polypyrimidine tract binding protein), which is a well-known exon-inclusion repressor.139 In addition, a recent study showed that H3.3K36me3-recognizing ZMYND11 protein causes large-scale intron retention.203 These studies imply that H3K36me3 exclusively marks exons in the alternative splicing process. In support of this, H3K36me3 levels are very low in intron-less genes.204 Alternative splicing is also regulated by the level of SETD2.189 Specifically, downregulation of SETD2 levels by polyubiquitylation mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, SPOP/CUL3, reduces H3K36me3 on SETD2 target genes and induces their splicing alternatively. Taken together with studies on H3K9 methylation, these results indicate that various histone modifications participate actively in RNA splicing processes.

H3K36 methylation-related diseases

Misregulation of H3K36 methylation often leads to various diseases.182 A defect in NSD1 was reported to cause Sotos syndrome, a neurological disorder characterized by macrocephaly and cognitive and motor skill deficiencies.205 In addition, Ndh2-knockout mice die shortly after birth with symptoms of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.186 These studies suggest that a deficiency of H3K36 methyltransferases disrupts neuronal development, although additional investigation will be required to elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism. The NSD genes also often function as oncogenes when overexpressed or translocated to Authoring Related - Crack Key For U genes.206, 207 For instance, a fusion protein caused by joining of the NSD1 gene with the NUP98 gene causes acute myeloid leukemia.208 This NSD1–NUP98 fusion protein facilitates H3K36 methylation and induces inappropriate activation of HOX genes.206 In addition, NSD2 overexpression induces multiple myelomas by promoting the expression of several oncogenes, such as TGFA (transforming growth factor alpha), MET and p21.207 Thus, their causal role in such distinctive diseases strongly suggests that NSD1 and NSD2 have different downstream target genes, despite sharing a common methylation site on histones. Moreover, the fact that a loss-of-function mutation of SETD2 causes renal cell carcinoma development implies that SETD2 acts as a tumor suppressor209, 210 reflecting its roles in DNA repair and alternative splicing.

H3K79 methylation

H3K79 methyltransferases

Unlike other histone lysine methylations, which are located on unstructured histone tail domains and are catalyzed by SET domain-containing methyltransferases, H3K79 methylation occurs on the globular domain of histone H3 and is mediated by Dot1, which lacks a SET domain.211 Dot1 was originally identified as a disruptor of telomeric-silencing genes in yeast,212 and subsequent genetic and biochemical studies showed that Dot1, as well as evolutionarily conserved homologs, including human DOT1L (DOT1-like)/KMT4, are responsible for all three states of H3K79 methylation.213, 214, 215, 216, 217

On the basis of structural studies, Dot1 homologs are categorized as a class I S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methyltransferase.218, 219 Despite structural similarities between human DOT1L and the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1,211 Dot1 homologs exhibit methyltransferase specificity toward lysine rather than arginine.213, 214, 220 In this context, it will be interesting to determine whether Dot1 homologs methylate arginine rather than lysine residues, if present, on novel target proteins.

Intriguingly, in vitro histone methyltransferase assays have demonstrated that Dot1 proteins preferentially methylate nucleosomal substrates rather than free histone H3.214, 220, 221 In addition, it has been shown that a positively charged region within human DOT1L (amino-acid residues 390–407) is required for direct interaction with nucleosomes and histone methyltransferase activity.218 These observations suggest that a newly created surface on the nucleosome produced by participation of histones and DNA provides an environment preferential for recognition and methylation by Dot1 proteins.

Another interesting feature of H3K79 methylation, like that of H3K4 methylation, is the trans-tail histone modification relationship with H2B ubiquitylation. Yeast genetic studies have demonstrated that defects in H2B ubiquitylation cause the complete disappearance of H3K79me2 and H3K79me3.39, 222, 223 Importantly, biochemical approaches have further shown that H2B-ubiquitylated recombinant nucleosomes serve as a preferential substrate for human DOT1L,217, 224 indicating that H2B ubiquitylation directly stimulates the H3K79 methylation activity of human DOT1L. The Muir group has made a number of important observations that have helped elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this interesting trans-tail histone modification. An enzyme kinetic analysis suggested that human DOT1L undergoes a conformational change in the presence of H2B-ubiquitylated nucleosomes.217 In addition, mutation analyses of the surface of ubiquitin linked to nucleosomes have suggested communication of specific amino-acid residues on ubiquitin with human DOT1L.225 Furthermore, a targeted photocrosslinking study provided evidence that H2B ubiquitylation ‘corrals’ human DOT1L into an H3K79-proximal orientation.226 Collectively, these studies support the proposition that installation of ubiquitin on nucleosomes converts dominant, but unproductive, interactions between DOT1L and the nucleosome into less dominant, but productive, interactions that allow H3K79 methylation.

In addition to H2B ubiquitylation, another trans-tail mechanism for regulating H3K79 methylation has been reported. An in vitro analysis showed that a direct physical interaction between Dot1 and the histone H4 N-terminal tail is required for Dot1-mediated H3K79 methylation.227 In a related observation, increased H4K16 acetylation induced by SAS2 (something about silencing 2) overexpression was shown to cause upregulation of H3K79 methylation by inhibiting the interaction between Sir3 (silent information regulator 3) and the histone H4 tail.227 Collectively, these observations suggest that, not only are structural features of the nucleosome important, surrounding histone modifications also affect the overall H3K79-methylation activity of Dot1.

Unidentified H3K79 demethylase

Although many demethylating enzymes responsible for histone lysine methylations have been reported, the reversibility of H3K79 methylations has not been clarified. The fact that H3K79me2 is reduced to a lesser extent on non-replicating extrachromosomal DNA than on chromosomal loci suggests that removal of H3K79 methylation merely depends on replication-dependent histone exchange.228 However, several studies have shown that global H3K79 methylation levels change dynamically during the G1/S transition.

Источник: https://www.nature.com/articles/emm201711
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