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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and hypersnap free alternative intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia Pepakura Designer 4.2.4 Crack + License Key 2021 - Free Activators be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that helium 14 music manager - Free Activators "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia schoolhouse technologies - Free Activators regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article hotspot shield vpn free download crack - Crack Key For U The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a NCH Debut Video Capture Software 7.42 Crack with Serial Key Here! reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class anti-malware free a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on McAfee WebAdvisor License key coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric helium 14 music manager - Free Activators focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of helium 14 music manager - Free Activators writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research smartpls professional version - Activators Patch the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being NOD32 AntiVirus 11.2 Keygen - Crack Key For U has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, Riffstation Pro Crack extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

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Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers (2/3, e, pi, the square root of 2—things like that), N. Feldman, Jul/Aug00, p22 (Feature)

An Act of Divine Providence (Kepler excerpt), Yuly Danilov, May/Jun93, p41 (Anthology)

Adding Angles in Three Dimensions (taking a plane theorem into the realm of polyhedrons), A. Shirshov and A. Nikitin, May/Jun97, p46 (At the Blackboard)

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The Adventures of Hans Pfaall and Fatty Pyecraft (questionable physics in stories by Poe and Wells), V. Nevgod, Jan90, p14 (Quantum Smiles)

Against the Current (evaluating fluid resistance), Alexander Mitrofanov, May/Jun96, p22 (Feature)

AHSME-AIME-USAMO-IMO (introduction to math competitions), Nov/Dec90, p52 (Happenings)

Airplanes in Ozone (effect of high-flying aircraft on stratospheric ozone), Albert Stasenko, May/Jun95, p20 (Feature)

Alexandrian Astronomy Today (the method found by Eratosthenes in the third century B.C. still works), Case Rijsdijk, Sep/Oct99, p35 (At the Blackboard)

All Bent Out of Shape (a look at many kinds of deformation), Sep/Oct95, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

All Sorts of Sorting (classification algorithms), P. Blekher and M. Kelbert, Jul/Aug97, p12 (Feature)

Always a New Face to Show (theorems about polyhedrons), May/Jun93, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

The Amazing Paraboloid (double refraction and energy redistribution), M. I. Feingold, Jul/Aug94, p40 (At the Blackboard)

The A-maze-ing Rubik’s Cube (a new variation), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Sep/Oct91, p64 (Toy Store)

The American Mathematics Correspondence School (I. M. Gelfand’s project for high school students), Nov/Dec93, p51 (Happenings)

The American Regions Mathematics League (summer competition), Mark Saul, May90, p56 (Happenings)

American Team Garners Six Gold Medals at 35th IMO (report on International Mathematical Olympiad), Nov/Dec94, p52 (Happenings)

Amusing Electrolysis (current thinking in chemistry), N. Paravyan, May/Jun98, p41 (In the Lab)

An Ant on a Tin Can (finding the shortest path from A to B), Igor Akulich, Sep/Oct97, p50 (At the Blackboard)

The Ancient Numbers Pi and Tau (approximating pi and using the golden ratio tau), Jan/Feb91, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Animal Magnetism (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun93, p28 (Physics Contest)

A. N. Kolmogorov (biographical sketch), Jan90, p38 (Innovators)

Anniversaries (satellites and science reform), Gerry Wheeler, Nov/Dec97, p2 (Front Matter)

The Annual Puzzle Party (report and samples), Anatoly Kalinin, Jul/Aug94, p56 (Toy Store)

Another Perpetual Motion Project? (a feasibility foray), A. Stasenko, Jan/Feb99, p39 (At the Blackboard)

The Anthropic Principle (humans and the universe), A. Kuzin, Jan/Feb99, p4 (Feature)

Anticipating Future Things (science education in 2044), Bill G. Aldridge, Jul/Aug94, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

“Are We Almost There, Captain?” (Columbus’s geographical problems), Glenn M. Edwards, Sep/Oct92, p52 (Looking Back)

Are You Relatively Sure? (relativity in its many forms), A. Leonovich, Sep/Oct96, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Arithmetic Obstacles (analyzing the possibility of moving from one position to another), N. Vaguten, Jul/Aug99, p4 (Feature)

Arithmetic on Graph Paper (planar numbers, gnomons, Pythagorean triples, and triangular numbers), Semyon Gindikin, Mar/Apr95, p49 (At the Blackboard)

Around and Around She Goes (the motion of merry-go-rounds), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr98, p30 (Physics Contest)

An Arresting Sight (the stroboscopic effect), V. Uteshev, Jul/Aug01, p30 (Now Showing)

As Easy as (a, b, c)? (Pythagorean triples), S. M. Voronin and A. G. Kulagin, Jan/Feb99, p34 (Feature)

The Ashen Light of the Moon (the how, when, and why of a faint lunar glow), Alexey Byalko, Sep/Oct96, p40 (In the Open Air)

The “Assayer” Weighs the Facts (Galileo excerpt), Yuly Danilov, Nov/Dec92, p43 (Anthology)

Atlantic Crossings (graphical method for motion problems), A. Rozental, Jul/Aug93, p46 (In Your Head)

Atmospherics (physics of the Earth’s atmosphere), A. V. Byalko, Mar/Apr91, p12 (Feature)

At Sixes and Sevens (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, May90, p35 (Contest)

Atwood’s Marvelous Machines (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jul/Aug93, p42 (Physics Contest)

Auxiliary Polynomials (solving equations with polynomials), L. D. Kurlyandchik and S. V. Fomin, Sep/Oct98, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Ax by Sea (actually, ax + by = c: approaches to Diophantine equations), Boris Kordemsky, Nov/Dec96, p22 (Feature)

B


Baby, It’s Cold Out There! (“cosmic cold” and thermal radiation), Albert Stasenko, Mar/Apr92, p12 (Feature)

Backtracking to Faraday’s Law (threshold voltage in electrolysis), Alexey Byalko, Jan/Feb94, p20 (Feature)

Bad Milk (a dynamic system gone sour), Dr. Mu, Sep/Oct97, p63 (Cowculations)

Ballpark Estimates (Fermi problems), David Halliday, May90, p30 (In Your Head)

Barn Again (a smooth move), Dr. Mu, Jul/Aug98, p62 (Cowculations)

Batteries and Bulbs (progressively more complicated circuits), Larry D. Kirkpatrick and Arthur Eisenkraft, Jul/Aug00, p32 (Physics Contest)

The Beetle and the Rubber Band (mind-stretching problem), Alexander A. Pukhov, Mar/Apr94, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Behind the Mirror (measuring the thickness of the reflecting layer), N. M. Rostovtsev, Jan/Feb96, p37 (In the Lab)

Behind the Scenes at the IMO (report and IMO questions), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Mar/Apr93, p53 (Happenings)

Bell Curve? What Bell Curve? (response to the May/June 1995 Publisher’s Page), Paul Horwitz, Jan/Feb96, p27 (Feedback)

Below Absolute Zero (who said it’s impossible?), Henry D. Schreiber, Jan/Feb97, p23 (Feature)

Be More Clever Than Chris! (Columbus’s egg trick), Yakov Perelman, Sep/Oct92, p54 (insert)

Bend This Sheet (developable surfaces), Dmitry Fuchs, Jan90, p16 (Feature)

Beyond the Reach of Ohm’s Law (interesting phenomena where the law doesn’t apply), Sergey Murzin, Mikhail Trunin, and Dmitry Shovkun, Nov/Dec94, p24 (Feature)

Billiard Math (reflections on simple optical reflection), Anatoly Savin, Nov/Dec96, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

The Birth of Low-temperature Physics (properties of helium near absolute zero), A. Buzdin and V. Tugushev, Jan/Feb01, p12 (Feature)

Bobbing for Knowledge (experiments with a hollow plastic ball), Pavel Kanayev, Mar/Apr95, p30 (In the Lab)

Bohr’s Quantum Leap (history of atomic theory), A. Korzhuyev, Jan/Feb99, p42 (Looking Back)

Boiling Liquid (how a bubble chamber works), A. Borovoi, Mar/Apr00, p54 (In the Lab)

Boing, Boing, Boing … (what happens after the second bounce, and the third. .), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jul/Aug96, p30 (Physics Contest)

The Bombs Bursting in Air (a look at sample problems and their social significance), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct96, p34 (Physics Contest)

Borsuk’s Problem (n-dimensionality meets combinatorics), Arkady Skopenkov, Sep/Oct96, p16 (Feature)

The Borsuk–Ulam Theory (horsing around with continuous functions on a circle), M. Krein and A. Nudelman, Jul/Aug00, p16 (Feature)

Botanical Geometry (triangular “flowers” and Torricelli circles), Sep/Oct90, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Bottling Milk (so many bottle sizes!), Dr. Mu, Mar/Apr97, p63 (Cowculations)

The Bounding Main (physics of sea swells), Ivan Vorobyov, May/Jun94, p20 (Feature)

Boy-oh-buoyancy! (problems in fluid statics), Alexander Buzdin and Sergey Krotov, Sep/Oct90, p27 (Feature)

Braids and Knots (primer on knot theory), Alexey Sosinsky, Jan/Feb95, p10 (Feature)

Breakfast of Champions (acquiring a full set of baseball cards in boxes of cereal), Don Piele, Mar/Apr01, p55 (Informatics)

Breaking Up is Hard to Do (nuclear fission), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct99, p30 (Physics Contest)

A Brewer and Two Doctors (origins of the law of conservation of energy), Gennady Myakishev, May/Jun96, p43 (Looking Back)

Bridging the Gap (between classical and quantum mechanics, teacher and student), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec95, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

A Brilliant Idea (poem), David Arns, Jul/Aug97, p33

Brocard Points (properties of points inside a triangle), V. Prasolov, Mar/Apr01, p22 (At the Blackboard)

Bubbles in Puddles (their size, shape, and longevity), Alexander Mitrofanov, Jul/Aug95, p4 (Feature)

A Burst of Green (mathematics of plant growth), Alexander Vedenov and Oleg Ivanov, May/Jun93, p10 (Feature)

Bushels of Pairs (graphical primer), Andrey N. Kolmogorov, Nov/Dec93, p4 (Feature)

But What Does It Mean? (the thinking behind the symbols), Bill G. Aldridge, Mar/Apr96, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

C


Calculating Pi (the contribution of Christiaan Huygens), Valery Vavilov, May/Jun92, p44 (Looking Back)

Calculus and Inequalities (three problems, one method), V. Ovsienko, Jan/Feb01, p38 (At the Blackboard)

Calendar Calculations (“Doomsday” rule), John Conway, Jan/Feb91, p46 (Mathematical Surprises)

“Can-do” Competitors in Canberra (report magic dvd ripper best quality settings the XXVI International Physics Olympiad), Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec95, p53 (Happenings)

Canopies and Bottom-flowing Streams (a spoonful of physics), Ivan Vorobyov, Jul/Aug95, p45 (In the Lab)

Cantor Cheese (recursive designs), Don Piele, Jan/Feb00, p53 (Informatics)

Can White Be Blacker Than Black? (black-body demonstration), V. V. Mayer, Sep/Oct92, p23 (In the Lab)

Can You Carry Water in a Sieve? (investigations of the surface layer), A. Dozorov, Jul/Aug00, p44 (In the Lab)

“Can You Hear Me?” (some thoughts on the history of human communication), Bill G. Aldridge, Jul/Aug96, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Can You See the Magnetic Field? (using a TV as a detector), Alexander Mitrofanov, Jul/Aug97, p18 (Feature)

Can You Trace the Rays? (ray diagrams), A. Leonovich, May/Jun99, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

A Cardioid for a Mushroom Picker (the curvy path of a lost forager), S. Bogdanov, Jul/Aug99, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Card Party (a seating problem), Don Piele, Jul/Aug01, p50 (Informatics)

Carl Friedrich Gauss, Part I (a biographical sketch of a prince of mathematics), S. Gindinkin, Nov/Dec99, p14 (Feature)

Carl Friedrich Gauss, Part II, S. Gindinkin, Jan/Feb00, p10 (Feature)

The Case of the Mythical Beast (Holmes and the Helmholtz resonator), Roman Vinokur, Nov/Dec93, p10 (Feature)

Catch as Catch Can (the theory of gravitational capture), Y. Osipov, Jan/Feb92, p38 (Looking Back)

Catching Up on Rays and Waves (a rhapsody on wavelengths and the Stefan–Boltzmann law), Albert Stasenko, Jul/Aug00, p10 (Feature)

Cauchy and Induction (a simpler proof of his famous inequality), Y. Solovyov, Jan/Feb01, p37 (At the Blackboard)

Caught in the Web (interesting World Wide Web sites), Sep/Oct95, p53 (Happenings)

The Century of the Cycloid (historical patterns), S. G. Gindikin, Mar/Apr99, p36 (Looking Back)

A Chebyshev Polyplayground (recurrence relations applied to a famous set of formulas), N. Vasilyev and A. Zelevinsky, Sep/Oct99, p20 (Feature)

Chebyshev’s Problem (polynomials of least deviation from zero), S. Tabachnikov and S. Gashkov, Sep/Oct94, p12 (Feature)

The Chemical Elements (curiosities from the periodic table), Sheldon Lee Glashow, May90, p14 (Getting to Know …)

Chess Puzzles and Real Chess (what happens when the two worlds intersect), Yevgeny Gik, Sep/Oct96, p64 (Toy Store)

Chopping Up Pick’s Theorem (triangulation and polygonal partition), Nikolay Vasilyev, Jan/Feb94, p49 (At the Blackboard)

Chores (how long will they take on your theoretical farm?), Don Piele, Jul/Aug00, p55 (Informatics)

Circular Reasoning (inscribed angles), Mark Saul and Benji Fisher, Nov/Dec97, p34 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

A Circuitous Route (“relevance” in science education), Bill G. Aldridge, Jul/Aug93, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Circuits and Symmetry (cutting down on algebra), Gary Haardeng-Pedersen, Jul/Aug95, p28 (At the Blackboard)

Circumcircles to the Rescue! (useful technique for solving certain problems), D. F. Izaak, Jan/Feb91, p32 (At the Blackboard)

The Clamshell Mirrors (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr92, p48 (Physics Contest)

Clarity, Reality, and the Art of Photography (an examination of “depth of field”), Mark L. Biermann, Sep/Oct95, p26 (Feature)

Classic Writings from the History of Science (Plutarch’s “Concerning the Face Which Appears in the Orb of the Moon”), Yuly Danilov, Mar/Apr92, p42 (Anthology)

Click, click, click … (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct90, p41 (Contest)

A Clock Wound for All Time (the Earth as a timepiece—can it measure its own age?), V. I. Kuznetsov, May/Jun97, p26 (Feature)

Cloud Formulations (a moist air mass went over the mountain), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb95, p36 (Physics Contest)

Coalescing Droplets (surface tension and drops), A. Varlamov, May/Jun99, p26 (At the Blackboard)

Cold Boiling (just add water), S. Krotov and A. Chernoutsan, Jan/Feb99, p33 (In the Lab)

Colder Means Slower (the Arrhenius equation), Henry D. Schreiber, Jul/Aug97, p4 (Feature)

A Collapsible Saddle (model of a hyperbolic paraboloid), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jan/Feb91, p56 (Toy Store)

Color Creation (partial “rainbows” in oil slicks), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun97, p36 (Physics Contest)

Combinatorics-polynomials-probability (permutations and binomial coefficients), Nikolay Vasilyev and Victor Gutenmacher, Mar/Apr93, p18 (At the Blackboard)

Come, Bossy (rounding up the herd), Dr. Mu, May/Jun98, p63 (Cowculations)

Competitive Computing in Stockholm (1994 International Olympiad in Informatics), Donald T. Piele, Nov/Dec94, p53 (Happenings)

The Complete Quadrilateral (definition and peculiar properties), I. Sharygin, Jul/Aug97, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Completing a Tetrahedron (a geometrical trick of the trade), I. F. Sharygin, Jul/Aug99, p46 (At the Blackboard)

Completing the Square (quadratic equations), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, Nov/Dec98, p35 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

The Conductor of a Set (an old problem revisited and feedback), George Berzsenyi, May/Jun96, p37 (Math Investigations)

Confessions of a Clock Lover (the cosmic consequences of switching hands), V. M. Babovic, Sep/Oct96, p44 (Horological Surprises)

Considerations of Continuity (wobbly chair and other problems), S. L. Tabachnikov, May90, p8 (Feature)

Constructing Quadratic Solutions (a novel use for compass and straightedge), A. A. Presman, Jan/Feb98, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Constructing Triangles from Three Given Parts (186 problems), George Berzsenyi, Jul/Aug94, p30 (Math Investigations)

Constructing Triangles from Three Located Points (20 out of 139 problems still need solving), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct94, p54 (Math Investigations)

Construction Program (regular polygons, Euler’s function, and Fermat numbers), Alexander Kirillov, Mar/Apr96, p10 (Feature)

Constructions with Compass Alone (Mohr–Mascheroni theorem), Dmitry Fuchs, May90, 47 (At the Blackboard)

Contact (number bit patterns), Dr. Mu, Nov/Dec98, p52 (Cowculations)

Contented Cows (finding all ways to sum digits in a number to zero), Dr. Mu, Jul/Aug99, p26 (Cowculations)

Continued Fractions (when close enough is good enough), Y. Nesterenko and E. Nikishin, Jan/Feb00, p22 (Feature)

Convection and Displacement Currents (nature of electricity), V. Dukov, Mar/Apr99, p4 (Feature)

A Conversation in a Streetcar (“lucky tickets” in Leningrad), A. Savin and L. Fink, Mar/Apr92, p23 (In Your Head)

Cooled by the Light (photonic refrigeration), I. Vorobyov, Sep/Oct93, p20 (Feature)

Cool Vibrations (fun with oscillations), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct97, p46 (Physics Contest)

Core Dynamics (transformers explained), A. Dozorov, Mar/Apr99, p14 (Feature)

Counting Problems in Finite Groups (problems from Research Experiences for Undergraduates), George Berzsenyi, Jul/Aug97, p34 (Math Investigations)

Counting Random Paths (probability, symmetry, and random walk), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jul/Aug93, p39 (Follow-up)

Creating Scientist-citizens (thoughts on “scientific literacy”), Bernard V. Khoury, Mar/Apr97, p2 (Front Matter)

The Creative Leap (Einstein’s science—everyone’s science), Gerry Wheeler, Jan/Feb97, p2 (Front Matter)

Criminal Geometry, or A Matter of Principle (Sherlock Holmes displays math prowess), D. V. Fomin, Sep/Oct91, p46 (Smiles)

Curiosity’s Natural Extension (feedback on National Science Education Standards editorial), Bill G. Aldridge, Jul/Aug95, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Curved Reality (does Nature abhor a straight line?), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct00, p30 (Contest Problem)

Cutting Facets (a simple problem with many hidden charms), Vladimir Dubrovsky, May/Jun96, p4 (Feature)

Cyberspace Exploration (cheap thrills and real science in the computer age), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct94, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

D


The Danger of Italian Restaurants (poem), David Arns, Sep/Oct98, p60 (Musings)

The Dark Power of Conventional Wisdom (Lobachevsky bicentenary), A. D. Alexandrov, Nov/Dec92, p4 (Feature)

The Death of a Star, Part I (poem), David Arns, Mar/Apr00, p53

The Death of a Star, Part II, David Arns, May/Jun00, p33

Delusion or Fraud? (dropping a needle to calculate pi), A. N. Zaydel, Sep/Oct90, p6 (Feature)

Democracy and Mathematics (voting paradoxes), Valery Pakhomov, Jan/Feb93, p4 (Feature)

Democratizing Expert Knowledge (climate change and science in society), Maurie J. Cohen, Jan/Feb98, p2 (Front Matter)

The Demoflush Figure (algebra where you least expect it), Linda P. Rosen, Jul/Aug97, p2 (Front Matter)

Depth of Knowledge (effects of air resistance), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, May/Jun98, p28 (Physics Contest)

Derivatives in Algebraic Problems (counting roots), Alexander Zvonkin, Nov/Dec93, p28 (At the Blackboard)

Desperately Seeking Susan on a Cylinder (a geometric approach to search and detection), A. Chkhartishvili and E. Shikin, Mar/Apr97, p10 (Feature)

Diamond Latticework (geometry of crystalline structures), R. V. Galiulin, Jan/Feb91, p6 (Feature)

Diamonds from a Jug (two tales with a brainteasing twist), Sergey Grabarchuk, Sep/Oct94, p63 (Toy Store)

Dielectrical Materialsm (the behavior of nonconducting objects in electric fields), Jan/Feb01, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Diffraction in Laser Light (seeing diffraction patterns), D. Panenko, Mar/Apr99, p33 (In the Lab)

Disorder in the Court! (using energy “free of charge”), V. Fabricant, May90, p43 (Quantum Smiles)

Differing Differences (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec91, p30 (Math Investigation)

Digitized Multiplication a la Steinhaus (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Jul/Aug93, p27 (Math Investigations)

Dinosaurs in the Haystack (scientific method), Stephen Jay Gould, Sep/Oct92, p10 (Feature)

Direct Current Events (DC machines), I. Slobodetsky, Mar/Apr92, p52 (At the Blackboard)

The Discriminant at Work (a handy algebraic tool), Andrey Yegorov, Jan/Feb96, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Distinct Sums of Twosomes (pushing the lower bound), George Berzsenyi, Mar/Apr95, p39 (Math Investigations)

Divide and Conquer! (shortcut divisibility rules), Ruma Falk and Eyal Oshry, Mar/Apr99, p18 (Feature)

Divisibility Rules (problems in divisibility), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, Mar/Apr99, p43 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

Divisive Devices (Euclid’s algorithm, greatest common divisor, and fundamental theorem of arithmetic), V. N. Vaguten, Sep/Oct91, p36 (Feature)

Do As We Say … (diversity in Quantum), Bill G. Aldridge, Mar/Apr93 p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Dr. Matrix on the Wonders of 8 (observations of the “world’s greatest numerologist”), Martin Gardner, Jul/Aug95, p43 (Mathematical Surprises)

Does a Falling Pencil Levitate? (tabletop physics), Leaf Turner and Jane L. Pratt, Mar/Apr98, p22 (Feature)

Does Elementary Length Exist? (surprising implications of relativity and quantum mechanics), Andrey Sakharov, May/Jun97, p14 (Feature)

Doing It the Hard Way (multiple methodology), M. Tulchinsky, Sep/Oct92, p17 (Smiles)

Doppler Beats (sound frequency and relative motion), Larry D. Kirkpatrick and Arthur Eisenkraft, Jul/Aug98, p28 (Physics Contest)

Double, Double Toil and Trouble (boundary boiling of two liquids), A. Buzdin and V. Sorokin, May/Jun92, p52 (In the Lab)

Do You Get the Drift? (what the wind does to the snow), Lev Aslamazov, JanFeb93, p28 (sidebar)

Do You Have Potential? (the concept of potential), A. Leonovich, Nov/Dec97, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Do You Know the Binding Energy? (a notion that unifies various types of physical interactions), May/Jun00, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Do You Really Know Time? (it’s still a bit of a mystery), A. Leonovich, Sep/Oct99, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Do You Really Know Vapors? (water behavior), A. Leonovich, Sep/Oct98, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Do You Get the Drift? (behavior of blowing snow), Lev Aslamazov, Jan/Feb93, p28 (insert)

Do You Know Atoms and Their Nuclei? (broad outlines of an tiny, intricate world), A. Leonovich, Jan/Feb00, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Do You Promise Not to Tell? (uses of constructive and destructive interference), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb97, p30 (Physics Contest)

Dragon Curves (Chandler and Knuth’s famous design), Nikolay Vasilyev and Victor Gutenmacher, Sep/Oct95, p4 (Feature)

Dragon the Omnipresent (a proof of a remarkable property [see “Dragon Curves,” Sep/Oct95, and “Nesting Puzzles-Part II,” Mar/Apr96]), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jul/Aug96, p34 (Follow-up)

Drops for the Crops (limits on the size of droplets), Yuly Bruk and Albert Stasenko, Mar/Apr94, p10 (Feature)

The Duke and His Chicken Incubator (seventeenth-century Florentine thermoscopes), Alexander Buzdin, Sep/Oct91, p51 (Looking Back)

Duracell Awards $100,000 to Young Inventors (results of Duracell/NSTA Scholarship Competition), May/Jun96, p53 (Happenings)

Dutch Treat (generating a sequence), Dr. Mu, Mar/Apr99, p55 (Cowculations)

E


East and West of Pythagoras by 30 degrees (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Mar/Apr92, p51 (Math Investigations)

Educated Guesses (amusing Fermi problems), John A. Adam, Sep/Oct95, p20 (Feature)

Egyptian Fractions (an alternative method from the 17th century B.C.), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec94, p45 (Math Investigations)

Electrical and Mechanical Oscillations (current in an oscillating circuit), A. Kikoyin, Mar/Apr01, p48 (At the Blackboard)

Electric Currents on Coulomb Hills (the ups and downs of a circuit), E. Romishevsky, Jul/Aug99, p37 (At the Blackboard)

Electricity in the Air (surface charge density of the Earth), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec93, p46 (Physics Contest)

Electric Multipoles (how a little order can weaken your potential), A. Dozorov, Sep/Oct99, p4 (Feature)

Electromagnetic Induction CyberLink Power2Go 13.0.2024.0 Free Download with Crack lives of electricity and magnetism), Mar/Apr91, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Elementary Functions (definitions from two perspectives), A. Veselov and S. Gindikin, Jul/Aug01, p22 (Feature)

The Elementary Particles (subatomic primer), Sheldon Lee Glashow, Sep/Oct90, p49 (Getting to Know …)

Elephant Ears (laws of scaling in the natural world), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec97, p30 (Physics Contest)

Elevator Physics (free-falling balls), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr99, p30 (Physics Contest)

11th Tournament of Towns (problems), Nov/Dec90, p51 (Happenings)

Embedding Triangles in Lattices (a classic problem from Math.Note at DEC), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct96, p38 (Math Investigations)

Endless Self-description (Hilgemeier’s “likeness sequence”), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct93, p17 (Math Investigations)

The Enigmatic Magnetic Force (the Lorentz force and the importance of accounting for small magnetic forces), E. Romishevsky, Jul/Aug00, p41 (At the Blackboard)

Enough Nerdiness (why the geek stereotype is so uncool), Dennis R. Harp and Harry Kloor, May/Jun98, p2 (Front Matter)

The Equalizer of a Triangle (a clever line that does double duty), George Berzsenyi, Mar/Apr97, p51 (Math Investigations)

Equation of the Gaseous State (handling twists with the ideal gas law), V. Belonuchkin, May/Jun00, p44 (At the Blackboard)

Equations Think For You youtube by click latest version crack - Activators Patch out incorrect assumptions), V. Nakhshin, Jan90, p46 (At the Blackboard)

Ernst Abbe and “Carl Zeiss” (giants of optics), A. Vasilyev, Jul/Aug00, p46 (Looking Back)

Errorproof Coding (error detection and self-correction), Alexey Tolpygo, Mar/Apr93, p10 (Feature)

Errors in Geometric Proofs (searching for mistakes), S. L. Tabachnikov, Nov/Dec98, p37 (At the Blackboard)

Euclidean Complications (alternate geometries), I. Sabitov, Sep/Oct98, p20 (Feature)

Experiments of Frank and Hertz (putting Bohr’s quantum postulates to the test), A. Levashov, Mar/Apr00, p38 (Looking Back)

Exploring Every Angle (several approaches to the same problem), Boris Pritsker, Mar/Apr01, p38 (Problem Primer)

Exploring Remainders and Congruences (a set of exercises), A. Yegorov, May/Jun01, p32 (At the Blackboard)

Extra! Extra! Read All About It! (inductive incompetence), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jul/Aug92, p43 (Smiles)

Extremists of Every Stripe (investing in Russia’s future), Bill G. Aldridge, Mar/Apr94, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The Eye and the Sky (the art of seeing faint objects), V. Surdin, Jan/Feb00, p16 (Feature)

The Eyes Have It (workings of the human eye), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, May/Jun99, p30 (Physics Contest)

F


Fair and Squared! (quadratic equations in physics problems), Boris Korsunsky, May/Jun97, p53 (At the Blackboard)

Fantasy Chess (adding a rule or two), Yevgeny Gik, Sep/Oct90, p64 (Checkmate!)

Faraday’s Legacy (communicating a love of science), Laurence I. Gould, Nov/Dec98, p2 (Front Matter)

Farewell to JCMN (in memory of Basil Rennie), George Berzsenyi, May/Jun97, p40 (Math Investigations)

The Far from Dismal Science (sustainability and input-output economics), Dean Button, Faye Duchin, and Kurt Kreith, Sep/Oct97, p38 (Feature)

The Fast Game for Math Minds (the “Twenty-Four” challenge), Mar/Apr91, p52 (Happenings)

Feeding Rhythms and Algorithms (premier of computing column), Dr. Mu, Nov/Dec96, p37 (Cowculations)

The Fellowship of the Rings (vortices and turbulence), S. Shabanov and V. Shubin, Jul/Aug01, p37 (In the Lab)

Fermat’s Little Theorem (proving its value to mathematicians), V. Senderov and A. Spivak, May/Jun00, p14 (Feature)

Fertilizer with a Bang (investigating an explosive situation), B. Novozhilov, Sep/Oct00, p8 (Feature)

The Feuerbach Theorem (exploring the inscribed and escribed circles of triangles), V. Protasov, Nov/Dec99, p4 (Feature)

Fibonacci Strikes Again! (curious occurrences of a famous number sequence), Elliott Ostler and Neal Grandgenett, Jul/Aug92, p15 (Mathematical Surprises)

Field Pressure (the “pressure” of a static field), A. Chernoutsan, Sep/Oct00, p40 (At the Blackboard)

The Fifth International Olympiad in Informatics (problems and empanadas), Donald T. Piele, Mar/Apr94, p46 (Happenings)

Finding the Family Resemblence (an attempt to categorize number representation problems), George Berzsenyi, Jul/Aug96, p27 (Math Investigations)

Fire and Ice (report on the 1998 International Physics Olympiad), Sep/Oct98, p56 (Happenings)

The First Bicycle (each wheel consisted of two sticks), Albert Stasenko, Jan/Feb97, p44 (At the Blackboard)

The First Photon (the “vending machine” model), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun95, DslrBooth Pro 5.22 Crack + Keygen Full Version Download (Physics Contest)

Flexible in the Face of Adversity (topological transformations), A. P. Veselev, Sep/Oct90, p12 (Feature)

Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces (bending the rules), V. A. Alexandrov, Sep/Oct98, p4 (Feature)

Flexland Revisited (new forms of “flexlife”), Alexander Panov and Anatoly Kalinin, Jul/Aug93, p64 (Toy Store)

Flights of Fancy? (the upper limits of arrow shooting), V. Drozdov, Mar/Apr01, p40 (In the Open Air)

A Flight to the Sun (the challenges of sending a probe to the nearest star), Alexey Byalko, Nov/Dec96, p16 (Feature)

Fluids and Fault Lines (why large earthquakes are rather rare), G. Golytsyn, Jan/Feb00, p4 (Feature)

Fluids and Gases on the Move (a look at fluid mechanics), L. Leonovich, Jan/Feb96, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Flux and Fixity (quantifying the energy stored in a magnetic field), V. Novikov, Jan/Feb01, p6 (Feature)

Fly Zapper (kill ’em and count ’em), Dr. Mu, Nov/Dec98, p62 (Cowculations)

Focusing Fields (finding the magnetic field that will focus charged particles), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb96, p32 (Physics Contest)

Focusing on the Fleet (Archimedean victory at sea), Sergey Semenchinsky, Sep/Oct93, p28 (In the Lab)

Foiled by the Coanda Effect (an alternative way of explaining lift), Jef Raskin, Sep/Oct94, p4 (Feature)

Follow the Bouncing Buckyball (fullerenes and other carbonic architecture), Sergey Tikhodeyev, May/Jun94, p8 (Feature)

The Force Behind the Tides (understanding the attraction of the Moon), V. E. Helium 14 music manager - Free Activators, May/Jun98, p10 (Feature)

Forcing the Issue (Newtonian mechanics), Mar/Apr92, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Forked Roads and Forked Tongues (a logical lie detector), P. Blekher, Nov/Dec97, p10 (Feature)

Formulas for Sin nx and Cos nx (handy mnemonic devices), Dmitry Fuchs, May/Jun93, p48 (At the Blackboard)

For the Love of Her Subject (interview with Marina Ratner), Julia Angwin, Jul/Aug94, p44 (Profile)

The Fourth State of Matter (plasma physics), Alexander Kingsep, Sep/Oct93, p4 (Feature)

The Friction and Pressure of Skating (glaciers and Carnot theorem), Alexey Chernoutsan, Jul/Aug94, p25 (At the Blackboard)

Friction, Fear, Friends, and Falling (mountaineering physics), John Wylie, Jul/Aug92, SData Tool 256 GB Crack With License Key Download Latest (Feature)

Friezing Our Way into Summer (zigzag frieze patterns), John Conway, May90, p50 (Mathematical Surprises)

From a Roman Myth to the Isoperimetric Problem (searching for the greatest area given equal perimeters), I. F. Sharygin, Jan/Feb97, p34 (At the Blackboard)

From a Snowy Swiss Summit to the Apex of Geometry (biographical sketch of Jacob Steiner), I. M. Yaglom, Nov/Dec93, p35 (Looking Back)

From Cherokee Math to Tubby Genes (educational content on the World Wide Web), Tim Weber, May/Jun97, p2 (Front Matter)

From Mouse to Elephant (cell size and other zoological constants), Anatoly Mineyev, Mar/Apr96, p18 (Feature)

From the Edge of the Universe to Tartarus (Hesiod meets modern physics), Albert Stasenko, Mar/Apr96, p4 (Feature)

From the Pages of History (talking dolls, singing goblets, a fountain that spurts on command), A. Varlamov, Mar/Apr01, p34 (Looking Back)

From the Prehistory of Radio (Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz, and Popov), S. M. Rytov, May90, p39 wise 365 activation key - Crack Key For U Back)

The Fruits of Kepler’s Struggle (discovering the laws of orbital motion), B. E. Belonuchkin, Jan/Feb92, p18 (Feature)

Fuel Economy on the Moon (harnessing the Moon’s gravity), A. Stasenko, Jan/Feb00, p38 (At the Blackboard)

Functional Equations and Groups (and how to solve them), Y. S. Brodsky and A. K. Slipenko, Nov/Dec98, p14 (Feature)

The Fundamental Particles (combining quarks), Larry D. Kirkpatrick and Arthur Eisenkraft, Mar/Apr01, p30 (Physics Contest)

Fun with Liquid Nitrogen (latent heat of vaporization), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr94, p38 (Physics Contest)

Further Adventures in Flexland (two-way hinges and flexchains), Alexey Panov, May/Jun92, p64 (Toy Store)

G


The Gambler, the Aesthete, and St. Pete (probabilities and payoffs), Leon Taylor, Jan/Feb98, p20 (Feature)

The Game of Battleships (achieving naval superiority on a paper sea), Yevgeny Gik, Nov/Dec96, p56 (Toy Store)

The Game of Bop (mathematical wordplay), Sheldon Lee Glashow, Sep/Oct92, p27 (In Your Head)

Generalizing Monty’s Dilemma (whether to stick with a choice or switch), John P. Georges and Timothy V. Craine, Mar/Apr95, p16 (Feature)

Generating Functions (problem-solving methods), S. M. Voronin and A. G. Kulagin, May/Jun99, p8 (Feature)

Getting It Together with “Polyominoes” (approach to tiling problems based on group theory), Dmitry Helium 14 music manager - Free Activators. Fomin, Nov/Dec91, p20 (Feature)

Genealogical Threes (using Euclid’s theorem to generate Pythagorean triples), A. A. Panov, Nov/Dec90, p36 (Looking Back)

Geometric Summation (infinite algebraic tilings), M. Apresyan, May/Jun94, p30 (In Your Head)

Geometric Surprises (a collection of elegant oddities), A. Savin, Jul/Aug00, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Geometry in the Pagoda (classic problems of the great Japanese geometers), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb95, p48 (Math Investigations)

The Geometry of Population Genetics (color blindness and the Hardy-Weinberg law), I. M. Yaglom, May90, p24 (Feature)

Geometry of Sliding Vectors (modeling forces acting on rigid bodies having a definite size and shape), Y. Solovyov and A. Sosinsky, Mar/Apr00, p18 (Feature)

Georg Cantor (an anniversary review of his achievements), Vladimir Tikhomirov, Nov/Dec95, p48 (Looking Back)

The Giants (on whose shoulders Newton stood), Vladimir Belonuchkin, Jul/Aug95, p38 (Looking Back)

Gingerbread Man (creating computer graphics), Dr. Mu, Jan/Feb98, p55 (Cowculations)

Giving Astronomy Its Due (the role of astronomy in human history), A. Mikhailov, Jul/Aug01, p46 (At the Blackboard)

Glancing at the Thermometer … (computing the coefficient of Microsoft Office 2016 Activator expansion), M. I. Kaganov, Jan/Feb93, p26 (At the Blackboard)

Gliding Home (propelling a glider long distances), Albert Stasenko, Mar/Apr99, p21 (At the Blackboard)

Glittering Performances (XXII International Physics Olympiad), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec91, p53 (Happenings)

Global Change (commentary on events in the former Soviet Union), Bill G. Aldridge, Mar/Apr92, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Going Around in Circles (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct91, p35 (Math Investigations)

Going to Extremes (using the “extremity rule”), A. L. Rosenthal, Nov/Dec90, p8 (Feature)

The Golden Ratio in Baseball (Fibonacci in sport statistics), Dave Trautman, Mar/Apr96, p30 (Mathematical Surprises)

Go “Mod” with Your Equations (remainders and congruences), Andrey Yegorov, May/Jun92, p24 (Feature)

The Good Old Pythagorean Theorem (proofs and generalizations), V. N. Beryozin, Jan/Feb94, p24 (Feature)

A Good Question (active thought versus passive absorption), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct90, p3 (Publisher’s Page)

A Good Theory (or two—from Newton and Bohr), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb01, p30 (Physics Contest)

Grand Illusions (apparent violations of light’s speed limit), A. D. Chernin, Jan/Feb92, p24 (At the Blackboard)

Graphs and Grafs (a little graph theory and practice), Anatoly Savin, Nov/Dec95, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Gravitational Redshift (determining a star’s characteristics from photonic redshift), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec95, p34 (Physics Contest)

The Great Art (controversial origins of “Cardano’s formula”), Semyon Gindikin, May/Jun95, p40 (Looking Back)

The Great Law (Newton and gravitational attraction), V. Kuznetsov, Sep/Oct99, p38 (Looking Back)

The Greek Alphabet (a physicist’s guide), Sheldon Lee Glashow, Mar/Apr92, p40 (Getting to Know …)

The Green Flash (an unusual spectacle at the close of day), Lev Tarasov, Jan/Feb97, p38 (In the Open Air)

A Gripping Story (how to calculate static friction), Alexey Chernoutsan, Mar/Apr96, p40 (At the Blackboard)

Group Velocity (a wider application of wave motion equations), Helio Waldman, Nov/Dec00, p47 (At the Blackboard)

H


Halving It All (curiosities of planar bisection), Mark E. Kidwell and Mark D. Meyerson, Mar/Apr92, p6 (Feature)

Halving Some More (segments of constant area), Dmitry Fuchs and Sergey Tabachnikov, Mar/Apr92, p26 (Feature)

Hands-on (or -off?) Science (thermal sensitivity), Alexey Byalko, Nov/Dec97, p4 (Feature)

Hands-on Topology (experiments with the Möbius strip), Vuescan 9.6.09 serial number - Crack Key For U Kordemsky, Nov/Dec95, p64 (Toy Store)

Happy Birthday, Uncle Paul! (Erdös turns eighty-one), George Berzsenyi, May/Jun94, p28 (Math Investigations)

Happy New Year! (publisher resolves to learn Russian), Bill G. Aldridge, Jan/Feb91, p5 (Publisher’s Page)

Hard-core Heavenly Bodies (ionic crystal, Young’s modulus, and planetary mass), Yuly Bruk and Albert Stasenko, Jul/Aug93, p34 (Feature)

Head over Heels (mechanics of an odd top), Sergey Krivoshlykov, May/Jun95, p62 (Toy Store)

Health and Long Life (travel notes: mad cows and the Brontës), Bill G. Aldridge, May/Jun96, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Heart Waves (behavior of electrical waves in the heart), A. S. Mikhailov, Nov/Dec91, p12 (Feature)

Heating Water from the Top (moving boundaries and waves under water), V. Pentegov, Nov/Dec99, p41 (In the Lab)

High-Speed Conservation (physics at near-light speeds), A. Korzhuyev, Sep/Oct98, p38 (At the Blackboard)

High-speed Hazards (a radical method of combatting the effects of very large accelerations), I. Vorobyov, May/Jun00, p24 (Feature)

Hindsight (when to hold ‘em and when to fold ‘em), Dr. Mu, Nov/Dec97, p55 (Cowculations)

The History of a Fall (what happens to a drip as it drops), Leonid Guryashkin and Albert Stasenko, Mar/Apr95, p10 (Feature)

Hit or Miss (Perelman problems), Nov/Dec92, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Holding Up Under Pressure (modeling bridges), Alexander Borovoy, Jan90, p30 (In the Lab)

Holes in Graphs (functions that are both continuous and discontinuous), Michael H. Brill and Michael Stueben, Sep/Oct91, p12 (Feature)

Hollow Molecules (belated insert to “Follow the Bouncing Buckyball”), David E. H. Jones, Mar/Apr95, p53 (Addendum)

Homemade Pendulums (describing their motion), G. L. Kotkin, Mar/Apr98, p38 (In the Lab)

Home on the Range (functional primer), Andrey N. Kolmogorov, Sep/Oct93, p10 (Feature)

Homogeneous Equations (more equation solving), L. Ryzhkov and Y. Ionin, May/Jun98, p43 (At the Blackboard)

The Horrors of Resonance (are you in for a rough landing?), A. Stasenko, Mar/Apr98, p45 (At the Blackboard)

Horseflies and Flying Horses (matters of scale in the animal world), A. Zherdev, May/Jun94, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

A Horse is a Horse (of Course, of Course) (shenanigans with fractions), A. S. Yarsky, May90, p43 (Quantum Smiles)

How About a Date? (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr93, p30 (Physics Contest)

How Big Am I, Really? (poem), David Arns, Jul/Aug98, p55 (Musings)

How Do We Breathe? (physics in alveoli), K. Y. Bogdanov, May90, p4 (Feature)

How Enlightened Are You? (straight answers to crooked questions about light), Alexander Leonovich, May/Jun96, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

How Long Does a Comet Live? (an attempt at an estimate), S. Varlamov, May/Jun01, p4 (Feature)

How Many Bubbles are in Your Bubbly? (the physics of gas dissolved in luquids), A. Stasenko, Nov/Dec00, p44 (In the Lab)

How Many Divisors Does a Number Have? (a classic problem with many interconnections), Boris Kotlyar, Mar/Apr96, p24 (Feature)

How’s Your Astronomy? (collection of heavenly facts and questions), May/Jun95, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

How the Ball Bounces (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr91, p54 (Contest)

How to Escape the Rain (to run or to walk?), I. F. Akulich, May/Jun98, p38 (In the Open Air)

Hula Hoop (circular animation), Dr. Mu, Jan/Feb99, p54 (Cowculations)

Hurling at the Abyss (oscillating too-short bridges), A. Stasenko, Nov/Dec98, p43 (At the Blackboard)

Hydroparadoxes (when fluids forsake model behavior), S. Betyaev, Jul/Aug98, p20 (Feature)

Hyperbolic Tension (measuring the coefficient of surface tension), I. I. Vorobyov, Jan/Feb98, p30 (In the Lab)

I


I Can See Clearly Now (poem), David Arns, Nov/Dec98, p8

An Ideal Gas Gets Real (and relativity visits electromagnetic induction), Albert Stasenko and Alexey Chernoutsan, Sep/Oct93, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Image Charge (electrostatic investigation), Larry D. Kirkpatrick and Arthur Eisenkraft, Jul/Aug99, p30 (Physics Contest)

The Importance of Studying the Physics of Sound Insulation (a detective story), Roman Y. Vinokur, Nov/Dec95, p18 (Feature)

Important Components of Learning Components (a different approach to vectors), Boris Korsunsky, Jan/Feb95, p45 (Sticking Points)

Incandescent Bulbs (illuminating thermal expansion), D. C. Agrawal and V. J. Menon, Jan/Feb98, p35 (At the Blackboard)

An Incident on the Train (air pressure in a tunnel), Carlo Camerlingo and Andrey Varlamov, Nov/Dec90, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Inequalities Become Equalities (a baker’s dozen problems with a common ingredient), A. Egorov, Mar/Apr00, p42 (At the Blackboard)

The Inevitability of Black Holes (Schwarzschild radius, principle of equivalence), William A. Hiscock, Mar/Apr93, p26 (Feature)

Infinite Descent (a method with wide applicability), Lev Kurlyandchik and Grigory Rozenblume, Jul/Aug96, p10 (Feature)

In Focus (optics and your eyes), A. Dozorov, Sep/Oct98, p48 (At the Blackboard)

In Foucault’s Footsteps (a simple experiment on the Coriolis force), M. Emelyanov, A. Zharkov, V. Zagainov, and V. Matochkin, Nov/Dec96, p26 (In the Lab)

In Memoriam: Paul Erdös 1913–1996) (an appreciation of the great problem master), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec96, p40 (Math Investigations)

The Ins and Outs of Circles (inscribed and circumscribed circles), I. F. Sharygin, Nov/Dec97, p38 (At the Blackboard)

Inscribe, Subtend, Circumscribe (variations on a geometric theme), Vladimir Uroyev and Mikhail Shabunin, Nov/Dec96, p10 (Feature)

In Search of a Definition of Surface Area (working through a paradoxical result), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Mar/Apr91, p6 (Feature)

In Search of Perfection (numbers equal to the sum of their own divisors), I. Depman, Advanced systemcare ultimate vs pro - Activators Patch, p8 (Feature)

Interacting Bodies (all about collisions), A. Leonovich, Jan/Feb99, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Internal Energy and Heat (why Q is in the reference tables, not ΔU), Alexey Chernoutsan, Jul/Aug97, p38 (Fundamentals)

In the Curved Space of Relativistic Velocities (link between relativity and hyperbolic geometry), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Mar/Apr93, p34 (Feature)

Interstellar Bubbles (a phase in the life cycle of stars), S. Silich, Nov/Dec97, p14 (Feature)

In the Planetary Net (the potential in gravitational fields), V. Mozhayev, Jan/Feb98, p4 (Feature)

Inversion (useful transformation), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Sep/Oct92, p40 (Getting to Know …)

Invincible Mephisto! (computer chess), Y. Gik, Jan90, p56 (Checkmate!)

An Invitation to the Bathhouse (physics in the Russian banya), I. I. Mazin, Sep/Oct90, p20 (Feature)

IOI 2000 (report from the International Olympiad of Informatics in Beijing), Don Piele, Jan/Feb01, p55 (Informatics)

Irrationality and Irreducibility (how are they connected?), V. A. Oleynikov, May/Jun97, p22 (Feature)

Irregular Regular Polygons (a math problem found in a dictionary), Eric D. Carlson and Sheldon L. Glashow, Jul/Aug95, p48 (At the Blackboard)

Is Bingo Fair? (parlor probability), Mark Krosky, May/Jun98, p4 (Feature)

Is This What Fermat Did? (fast factorization), B. A. Kordemsky, Sep/Oct91, p17 (At the Blackboard)

It All Depends on Your Attitude (getting oriented in outer space), Bernice Kastner, Jan/Feb92, p12 (Feature)

It’s All Greek to Me! (symbols in math and science), Bill G. Aldridge, Jan/Feb95, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

It’s Beautiful—But Is It Science? (waves in a Viking painting), Albert Stasenko, Jan90, p8 (Feature)

J


Jesse James Discovers the Heat Equation (using spreadsheets for diffusion processes), Kurt Kreith, May/Jun95, p26 (Feature)

Jewels in the Crown (mathematical induction), Mark Saul, Jul/Aug92, p10 (Feature)

Jingle Bell? (bell-ringing in a vacuum), N. Paravyan, Nov/Dec97, p27 (In the Lab)

Jules Verne’s Cryptogram (cracking a code to save a life), G. A. Gurevich, Sep/Oct90, p44 (Looking Back)

K


Karate Chop (physics of tameshiwari), A. Biryukov, May/Jun99, p14 (Feature)

Keeping Cool and Staying Put (heat pumps and rope tension), Alexander Buzdin, May/Jun93, p17 (At the Blackboard)

Keeping Track of Points (trajectories, tracks, and displacements), Sep/Oct93, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Kith and Kin (friendly numbers and twin primes), Jan90, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Knots, Links, and Their Polynomials (Reidemeister moves, Conway polynomial, and other aspects of knot theory), Alexey Sosinsky, Jul/Aug95, p8 (Feature)

L


Landau’s License Plate Game (math prowess of a great physicist), M. I. Kaganov, Mar/Apr93, p47 (In Your Head)

Langtons Ant (a spinoff of Conway’s Game of Life), Don Piele, Mar/Apr00, p63 (Informatics)

Laser Levitation (lifting with light), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun94, p38 (Physics Contest)

Laser Pointer (the underlying physics), S.Obukhov, Nov/Dec00, p14 (Feature)

The Last Problem of the Cube (“God’s algorithm” for Rubik’s immortal cube), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Mar/Apr95, p61 (Toy Store)

Late Light from Mercury (gravitational refraction), Yakov Smorodinsky, Nov/Dec93, p40 (In the Lab)

Latin Rectangles (exercise in combinatorics), V. Shevelyov, Mar/Apr91, p18 (Feature)

Latin Triangles (a puzzle and a model of Schwarz’s boot), D. Bernshtein, Mar/Apr91, p64 (Toy Store)

Lattices and Brillouin Zones (polygonal patterns), A. B. Goncharov, Nov/Dec98, p4 (Feature)

Launch into International Space Year! (guide to ISY activities), Jan/Feb92, p53 (Happenings)

Lazy-day Antidotes (light summertime problems pandora mod apk 2020 - Free Activators quicken the mind), Jul/Aug95, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

The Leaky Pendulum (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec91, p28 (Physics Contest)

Learning About (Not By) Osmosis (discovery and applications), Alexander Borovoy, Nov/Dec91, p48 (In the Lab)

Learning from a Virus (applying system dynamics to the spread of an illness), Matthias Ruth, Sep/Oct97, p28 (Feature)

The Legacy of al-Khwarizmi (the origins of algebra), Z. D. Usmanov and I. Hodjiev, Jul/Aug98, p26 (Looking Back)

The Legacy of Norbert Wiener (Part I: childhood, boyhood, youth), Nov/Dec94, p47 (Innovators)

The Legacy of Norbert Wiener (Part II: Brownian motion and beyond), Jan/Feb95, p41 (Innovators)

The Legacy of Norbert Wiener (Part III: from feedback to cybernetics), Mar/Apr95, p42 (Innovators)

Less Heat and More Light (properties of the “ideal black body”), Y. Amstislavsky, Nov/Dec95, p4 (Feature)

Let’s Not Be Dense About It! (facts, questions, and problems about density), A. A. Leonovich, May/Jun97, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Letters from the Editors (notes by the editors in chief), Jan90, p6

Lewis Carroll’s Sleepless Nights (two “pillow problems” in probability), Martin Gardner, Mar/Apr95, p40 (Mathematical Surprises)

Liberté, Égalité, Géométrie (Gaspard Monge—father of descriptive geometry), V. Lishevsky, Nov/Dec00, p20 (Feature)

Life on an Accelerating Skateboard (toward an improved definition of “weight”), Albert A. Bartlett, Sep/Oct95, p49 (Follow-up)

Light at the End of the Tunnel (invariants and monovariants), Dmitry Fomin and Lev Kurlyandchik, Mar/Apr94, p16 (Feature)

Light in a Dark Room (history of the camera obscura), V. Surdin and M. Kartashev, Jul/Aug99, p40 (Looking Back)

Lightning in a Crystal (story of the LED), Yury R. Nosov, Nov/Dec90, p12 (Feature)

Light Pressure (are sunny days more burdensome?), S. V. Gryslov, May/Jun98, p36 (Looking Back)

The Limits to Growth Revisited (a primer on exponential growth, overshoot, and dynamic modeling), Kurt Kreith, Sep/Oct97, p4 (Feature)

The Little House on the Tundra (keeping the foundation from melting the ground), A. Tokarev, Jul/Aug00, p38 (At the Blackboard)

A Little Lens Talk (“paper” and “real” lenses), Alexander Zilberman, May/Jun94, p35 (At the Blackboard)

Local Fields Forever (looking at gravity and acceleration), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb98, p32 (Physics Contest)

The Long and Short of It (ruminations on the notion of “length”), Anatoly Savin, Mar/Apr96, p32 Kaleidoscope)

The Long Road to Longitude (how we finally became “coordinated”), A. A. Mikhailov, Mar/Apr97, p42 (Looking Back)

Look, Ma—No Calculus! (a spreadsheet approach to population dynamics), Kurt Kreith, Nov/Dec94, p15 (Feature)

The Lorentz/FitzGerald Diet (poem), David Arns, Jan/Feb99, p41

Lost in a Forest (Bellman’s problem: how to get out in the shortest time?), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec95, p41 (Math Investigations)

Love and Hate in the Molecular World (the “emotions” of dipoles), Albert Stasenko, Nov/Dec94, p10 (Feature)

Lunar Ironies (it is made of cheese!), M. A. Koretz and Z. L. Ponizovsky, Jul/Aug93, p24 (Smiles)

Lunar Launch Pad (could a volcano have given birth to a satellite of the Earth of Sun?), A. Stasenko, Mar/Apr01, p44 (Forces of Nature)

Lunar Miscalculation (how to get stranded in the pitch-dark mountains), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec96, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The Lunes of Hippocrates (an early attempt to square the circle), V. N. Berezin, Jan/Feb98, p39 (Looking Back)

M


A Magical Musical Formula (soundless guitar tuning), P. Mikheyev, Jan/Feb95, p30 (In the Lab)

The Magic of 3 x 3 (specifically, a magic square of squares), Martin Gardner, Jan/Feb96, p24 (Mathematical Surprises)

Magnetic Fieldwork (measuring magnetic fields), D. Tselykh, Sep/Oct98, p46 (In the Lab)

Magnetic Levitation Comes of Age (superconductivity applied), Thomas D. Rossing and John R. Hull, Mar/Apr95, p22 (Feature)

Magnetic Monopoly (in search of the magnetic monopole), John Wylie, May/Jun95, p4 (Feature)

Magnetic Personality (Hans Christian ײsted), V. Kartsev, May/Jun99, p42 (Looking Back)

Magnetic Vee (a constant current I in a wire shaped like a V), Larry D. Kirkpatrick and Arthur Eisenkraft, Mar/Apr00, p34 (Physics Contest)

Magnets, Charges, and Planets (the search for connections among forces), Albert Stasenko, May/Jun97, p42 (At the Blackboard)

A Magnificant Obsession (perfect numbers), Michael H. Brill and Michael Stueben, Jan/Feb93, p18 (Feature)

Make Yourself Useful, Diana (the Moon as a radio telescope antenna), P. V. Bliokh, Mar/Apr92, p34 (Feature)

Making the Crooked Straight (linearizing mechanism for the steam engine), Yury Solovyov, Nov/Dec90, p20 (Feature)

The Many Faces of Ice (the physics of frozen water), A. Zaretsky, Jul/Aug01, p6 (Feature)

Many Happy Returns (the tricky business of returning from space), Albert Stasenko, Jul/Aug01, p16 (Feature)

Many Ways to Multiply (a survey of techniques), Anatoly Savin, Mar/Apr01, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

The Mapmaker’s Tale (Four Color Theorem goes awry), Sheldon Lee Glashow, May/Jun93, p46 (Smiles)

Marching Orders (finite group primer), Alexey Sosinsky, Nov/Dec91, p6 (Feature)

The Markov Equation (an elegant solution to a Diophantine equation), M. Krein, Jan/Feb00, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Mars or Bust! (problems related to exploring the Red Planet), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr97, p34 (Physics Contest)

Martin Gardner’s “Royal Problem” (generalization of a chessboard problem), Jesse Chan, Peter Laffin, and Da Li, Sep/Oct93, p45 (Follow-up)

A Mathematical Handbook with No Figures (silliness with a purpose), Yuly Danilov, May/Jun94, p42 (Quantum Smiles)

Mathematical Hopscotch (discontinuous Q&A), Jul/Aug94, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

The Mathematician, the Physicist, and the Engineer (science jokes on the Internet), May/Jun96, p48 (Quantum Smiles)

Mathematics: 1900–1950 (an overview), V. Tikhomirov, Mar/Apr00, p4 (Feature)

Mathematics in Living Organisms (calculating cats), M. Berkenblit and E. Glagoleva, Nov/Dec92, p34 (Feature)

Mathematics in Perpetual Motion (imaginary elliptical engine), Anatoly Savin, Jul/Aug94, p4 (Feature)

Math Relay Races (relay problems from the trenches), Don Barry, May/Jun98, p26 (At the Blackboard)

Matter and Gravity (material points and extended objects), Sep/Oct00, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Matter and Magnetism (a quick tour), Mau/Jun01, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Maximizing the Greatest (revisiting a GCD problem), George Berzsenyi, May/Jun95, p39 (Math Investigations)

Meandering down to the Sea (natural curvature of riverbeds), Lev Aslamazov, Jul/Aug92, p34 (In the Lab)

The Mean Value of a Function (stretching an arithmetic concept), Yury Ionin and Alexander Plotkin, Nov/Dec95, p26 (Feature)

The Medians (multiple proofs of a well-known theorem), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Nov/Dec94, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Meeting No Resistance (high-temperature superconductivity), Alexander Buzdin and Andrey Varlamov, Sep/Oct91, p6 (Feature)

A Meeting of Minds (US-Soviet science teachers conference), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct91, p4 (Publisher’s Page)

Merry-go-round Kinematics (a dynamic game of cherry tossing), Albert Stasenko, Sep/Oct96, p48 (At the Blackboard)

Message from Afar (poem), David Arns, May/Jun99, p48 (Musings) [reprinted Nov/Dec99, p9]

Mighty Ether Has Struck Out (poem), David Arns, May/Jun97, p30

Milk Routes (the best whey into town), Dr. Mu, Mar/Apr98, p55 (Cowculations)

Minimal Surfaces (wire contours and soap films), A. Fomenko, May/Jun00, p4 (Feature)

Mirror Full of Water (wet optics), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jul/Aug94, p32 (Physics Contest)

Miss or Hit (more Perelman problems), Mar/Apr93, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Modeling a Tornado (cyclone in a jar), V. Mayer, May/Jun00, p42 (In the Lab)

Models of Efficiency (problems and facts about work, power, and efficiency), Sep/Oct94, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

The Modest Experimentalist, Henry Cavendish (scientist who didn’t publish results), S. Filonovich, Jan/Feb91, p41 (Looking Back)

Molecular Interactions Up Close (fundamental forces), G. Myakishev, May/Jun00, p8 (Feature)

Molecular Intrigue (how small are molecules?), A. Leonovich, Jan/Feb98, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

A Moon of Steel (loony research), M. A. Koretz and Z. L. Ponizovsky, Jul/Aug93, p24 (Smiles)

The Moscow Correspondence School in Quantum (sample problems from a school without walls), I. M. Gelfand, Mar/Apr91, p42 (Math by Mail)

The “Most Inertial” Reference Frame (the universe’s relict radiation), Gennady Myakishev, Mar/Apr95, p48 (In Your Head)

The Most Mysterious Shape of All (a spiral primer), Mar/Apr95, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

The Most Profit with the Least Effort (Chebyshev’s “The Drawing of Geographic Maps”), Yuly Danilov, Sep/Oct94, p35 (Anthology)

Mushrooms and X-ray Astronomy (natural collimator), Alexander Mitrofanov, Jul/Aug94, p10 (Feature)

Musical Chairs (a variant, and a question), Don Piele, May/Jun01, p54 (Informatics)

Moving Matter (using a pendulum to measure speed), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun96, p34 (Physics Contest)

The Multidimensional Cube (an introduction to multidimensional space), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Sep/Oct96, p4 (Feature)

The Music of Physicists (amusing anecdotes about Einstein, Bunsen, Planck, and Rutherford), Sep/Oct90, p54 (Quantum Softmaker office upgrade Mystery of Figure No. 51 (descendant of tangram), Alexey Panov, Sep/Oct92, p63 (Toy Store)

N


The Name Game of the Elements (confusion and politics in chemistry), Henry D. Schreiber, Sep/Oct96, p24 (Feature)

Nascent Non-Euclidean Geometry (revisiting a geometry classic), N. I. Lobachevsky, May/Jun99, p20 (Feature)

The Natural Logarithm (derivation of an unnatural-looking number), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec90, p26 (Getting to Know …)

The Nature of an Ideal Gas (implications of the model), A. Leonovich, May/Jun98, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

The Nature of Light (the Compton effect), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec96, p30 (Physics Contest)

Nature’s Fireworks (inner workings of the auroras), A. K. Kikoyin, Jan/Feb92, p50 (Feature)

The Near and Far of It (limitations of optical instruments), A. Stasenko, Mar/Apr01, p24 (Feature)

Nesting Puzzles (part I: The Tower of Hanoi and Panex), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jan/Feb96, p53 (Toy Store)

Nesting Puzzles (part II: Chinese rings and the return of the dragon), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Mar/Apr96, p61 (Toy Store)

Neutrinos and Supernovas (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec90, p35 (Contest)

Neutrons Seek the Murderer (neutron activation analysis), A. S. Shteinberg, May/Jun92, p20 (In the Lab)

The New Earth (physics of a hollow Earth), A. Stasenko, Jul/Aug99, p16 (Feature)

Nine Solutions to One Problem (classic triangle problem), Constantine Knop, May/Jun94, p46 (At the Blackboard)

Nonreπeating, Πatternless, and Πerπetually Aππproximated (aspects of pi), Nov/Dec00, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Nonstandardly Continued Fractions (infinite processes with simple answers), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb96, p39 (Math Investigations)

Not All is Revealed (the Uncertainty Principle and other forms of indeterminacy), Albert Stasenko, Nov/Dec96, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Not a Silver Bullet—A Golden Opportunity (how technology can improve science education), Stanley Litow, Jan/Feb01, p3 (Front Matter)

Notes of a Traveler (education in the US and USSR), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec90, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The Notion of Vicinity (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec92, p18 (Math Investigations)

Nudging Our Way to a Proof (using the method of small perturbations), Galina Balk, Mark Balk, and Vladimir Boltyansky, Mar/Apr95, p4 (Feature)

Number Cells (numerical destinations), Thomas Hagspihl, Nov/Dec97, p41 (At the Blackboard)

Number Show (a handful of numerical tricks), Ivan Depman and Naum Vilenkin, Mar/Apr96, p46 (In Your Head)

Numbers in Our Genes (quantification in molecular biology), Bill G. Aldridge, May/Jun94, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Number Systems (Babylonian, Roman, Mayan, and beyond), Isaak Yaglom, Jul/Aug95, p22 (Feature)

Numeral Roamings (exploring nontraditional mathematical operations), A. Egorov and A. Kotova, Mar/Apr98, p16 (Feature)

Numerical Data in Geometry Problems (new angles to problem solving), S. V. Ovchinnikov and I. F. Sharygin, May/Jun99, p37 (At the Blackboard)

O


Obtaining Symmetric Inequalities (Muirhead’s Theorem), S. Dvoryaninov and E. Yasinovyi, Nov/Dec99, p44 (At the Blackboard)

The Oceanic Phone Booth (large-scale waveguides), Andrey Varlamov and Alexey Malyarovsky, May/Jun93, p36 (Feature)

Of Amoebas and Men (amoeba in a dinner jacket), Alexey Sosinsky, Jan90, p44 (Looking Back)

Of Combs and Coulombs (a smorgasbord of electrical questions and facts), A. Leonovich, Jan/Feb97, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Off into Space (jumping out of the plane), Vladimir Dubrovsky and Igor Sharygin, Jan/Feb92, p44 (Feature)

Of Microscopes, E-mail, and Word of Mouth (questions of survival), Bill G. Aldridge, May/Jun93, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

An Old Algorithm (taking square roots), Y. Solovyov, Mar/Apr00, p51 (At the Blackboard)

An Old Fact and Some New Ones (shape-numbers and number-shapes), John Conway, Sep/Oct90, p24 (Mathematical Surprises)

Olympiad Honors (report on the 40th International Mathematical Olympiad), Jan/Feb00, p41 (Happenings)

Olympian Effort (reminiscences of Moscow competitions), V. Tikhomirov, Mar/Apr00, p32 (At the Blackboard)

Olympic Recap from England (XXXI International Physics Olympiad), Mary Mogge, Nov/Dec00, p26 (Happenings)

The Omnipresent and Omnipotent Neutrino (brief history, current research), Chris Waltham, Jul/Aug93, p10 (Feature)

One Problem After Another (chain questions), B. M. Bolotovsky, Jan90, p13 (Quantum Smiles)

One’s Best Approach (summing up reciprocals), O. T. Izhboldin and L. D. Kurlyandchik, Mar/Apr99, p24 (At the Blackboard)

Ones Up Front in Powers of Two (Fractional Parts Theorem), Vladimir Boltyansky, Nov/Dec93, p16 (Feature)

One, Two, Many (“primitive” counting method of scientists), May/Jun92, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

On Kaleidoscopes (a look at them in all their dimensions), E. B. Vinberg, May/Jun97, p4 (Feature)

On Quasiperiodic Sequences (an unexpected use of graph paper), A. Levitov, A. Sidorov, and A. Stoyanovsky, Sep/Oct00, p34 (At the Blackboard)

On the Edge (compassless constructions), Igor Sharygin, Mar/Apr98, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

On the Nature of Space Magnetism (the cosmic “hydromagnetic dynamo”), Alexander Ruzmaykin, Sep/Oct95, p12 (Feature)

On the Eagle 9.4.2 crack download - Activators Patch Nature of Heat (finding direction in chaos), V. Mityugov, Nov/Dec99, p10 (Feature)

Optics for a Stargazer (can one see stars at noon from the bottom of a well?), Vladimir Surdin, Sep/Oct94, p18 (Feature)

The Orbit of Triangles (attractors and “butterflies”), George Berzsenyi, Mar/Apr96, p43 (Math Investigations)

The Orchard Problem (planting trees but maintaining a view), Vladimir Jankovic, Jan/Feb96, p16 (Feature)

Ordered Sets (ordered triplets, some generalizations, and interesting inequalities), L. Pinter and I. Khegedysh, Jul/Aug98, p43 (At the Blackboard)

Ornamental Groups (Escher and symmetry groups), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Nov/Dec91, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Osmosis the Magnificent (powerful, yes; perpetual …?), Norayr Paravyan, Jul/Aug96, p39 (In the Lab)

The Other Half of What You See (more on derivatives in algebraic problems), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Nov/Dec93, p44 (Follow-up)

Our Old Magnetic-Enigmatic Friend (follow-up to “The Enigmatic Magnetic Force”), E. Romishevsky, Nov/Dec00, p38 (At the Blackboard)

Out of Flexland (“gasping starfish” and more), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jul/Aug92, p63 (Toy Store)

Out Standing in the Field (divvying up the purse in a shortened season), Dr. Mu, Jul/Aug97, p55 (Cowculations)

Out to Pasture (finding the digital product root of 123456789), Dr. Mu, Jul/Aug99, p54 (Cowculations)

Overshooting the Limits (reappraising Malthus with computer simulations), Bob Eberlein, Sep/Oct97, p14 (Feature)

P


The Painter’s Paradox (covering an infinite surface), A. A. Panov, Mar/Apr91, p10 (Quantum Smiles)

Painting the Digital World (surface areas of pixels and voxels), Michael H. Brill, Mar/Apr99, p10 (Feature)

Panting Dogs, Aromatic Blooms, and Tea in a Saucer (tales of evaporation in the natural world), Andrey Korzhuyev, Nov/Dec94, p30 (In the Open Air)

A Partial History of Fractions (unit fractions, sexagesimal fractions, decimal fractions, binary fractions …), N. Vilenkin, Sep/Oct00, p26 (Nomenclatorium)

A Party of Wise Guys (14th Annual Puzzle Party), Anatoly Kalinin, Jul/Aug95, p63 (Toy Store)

Patterns of Predictability (symmetry, anisotropy, and Ohm’s law), S. N. Lykov and D. A. Parshin, Nov/Dec91, p36 (Feature)

Peering into Potential Wells (a common aspect of three disparate objects), K. Kikoin, May/Jun01, p12 (Feature)

Penrose Patterns and Quasi-crystals (tiling and a high-tech alloy), V. Koryepin, Jan/Feb94, p12 (Feature)

Perfect Shuffle (an algorithm for a deck of six cards), Don Piele, Nov/Dec00, p55 (Informatics)

Periodic Binary Sequences (generating 0’s and 1’s), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec93, p50 (Math Investigations)

Periodic Functions in Hiding (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct92, p39 (Math Investigations)

A Permutator’s Bag of Tricks (solutions to rolling-block puzzles) Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jan/Feb94, p62 (Toy Store)

The Pharaoh’s Golden Staircase (dynamic programming and Bellman’s formula), M. Reytman, Mar/Apr94, p4 (Feature)

Phlogiston and the Magnetic Field (outgrown concepts), Stephanie Eatman, Fraser Muir, and Hugh Hickman, Mar/Apr94, p35 (Looking Back)

Photosynthesism (artificial barriers between disciplines), Bill G. Aldridge, Jul/Aug92, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Physical Optics and Two Camels (two-beam interference and the limits of far-sightedness), A. Stasenko, Sep/Oct99, p44 (At the Blackboard)

Physics Fights Frauds (scientific sleuthing), I. Lalayants and A. Milovanova, Jan/Feb93, p10 (Feature)

Physics for Fools (hare-brained experiments for crackpots), V. F. Yakovlev, Nov/Dec90, p17 (Quantum Smiles)

Physics in the Kitchen (simple experiments with boiling water), I. I. Mazin, Sep/Oct97, p54 (In the Lab)

Physics in the News (calculus and the laws of scaling), Albert A. Bartlett, May/Jun96, p50 (At the Blackboard)

Physics Limericks (finished and unfinished rhymes), Robert Resnick, Sep/Oct90, p52 (Quantum Smiles)

The Physics of Chemical Reactions (molecular kinetics), O. Karpukhin, Nov/Dec00, p4 (Feature)

The Physics of Walking (oscillations and parametric resonance), I. Urusovsky, Sep/Oct00, p20 (Feature)

A Physics Soufflé (having enough information, or too much), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jul/Aug97, p30 (Physics Contest)

Physics Without Fancy Tools (summertime scientific observations), A. Dozorov, Jul/Aug01, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

A Pigeonhole for Every Pigeon (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct90, p40 (Contest)

Pigeons in Every Pigeonhole (application of the Dirichlet principle), Alexander Soifer and Edward Lozansky, Jan90, p24 (Feature)

Ping-Pong in the Sink (Bernoullian behavior), Alexey Byalko, Jul/Aug93, p48 (In the Lab)

Pins and Spin (a bowling problem with a twist), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jul/Aug95, p34 (Physics Contest)

A Pivotal Approach (applying rotation in problem solving), Boris Pritsker, May/Jun96, p44 (At the Blackboard)

The Pizza Theorem—Part I (equality of off-center slices), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb94, p29 (Math Investigations)

The Pizza Theorem—Part II (including the Calzone Theorem), George Berzsenyi, Mar/Apr94, p29 (Math Investigations)

Planar Graphs (can you make the connections?), A. Y. Olshansky, Jan/Feb98, p10 (Feature)

A Planetary Air Brake (viscous drag and the slowing of the Earth), D. C. Agrawal and V. J. Menon, Mar/Apr97, p40 (At the Blackboard)

Planetary Building Blocks (blueprints for creating terra firma), V. Mescheryakov, Jul/Aug98, p4 (Feature)

Playing with the Ordinary (exploring everyday phenomena), Sep/Oct92, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Play It Again … (inducing strange repetitions), John Conway, Nov/Dec90, p30 (Mathematical Surprises)

The Play of Light (results of a “slight” change in the rules), Dmitry Tarasov and Lev Tarasov, May/Jun96, p10 (Feature)

The Pointed Meeting of a Triangle’s Altitudes (various ways of proving a well-known theorem), I. F. Sharygin, Jul/Aug99, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Points of Interest (unique locations within a triangle), I. F. Sharygin, Mar/Apr98, p34 (At the Blackboard)

A Polarizer in the Shadows (life and physics of Etienne Malus), Andrey Andreyev, Jan/Feb94, p44 (Looking Back)

A Portrait of Poisson (one of the founders of modern mathematical physics), B. Geller and Y. Bruk, Mar/Apr91, p21 (Innovators)

Portrait of Three Puzzle Graces (Rubiklike games and group theory), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Nov/Dec91, p63 (Toy Store)

The Power of Dimensional Thinking (problem-solving method), Yuly Bruk and Albert Stasenko, May/Jun92, p34 (Feature)

The Power of Likeness (strengths and weaknesses of analogy), S. R. Filonovich, Sep/Oct91, p22 (Feature)

The Power of the Sun and You (surprises of scale), Helium 14 music manager - Free Activators. Lange and T. Lange, Jul/Aug96, p16 (Feature)

A Prelude to the Study of Physics (models and their role in science), Robert J. Sciamanda, Nov/Dec96, p45 (Fundamentals)

The Price of Resistance (“kitchen experiments” on how the medium “pushes back”), S. Betyayev, Sep/Oct00, p38 (In the Lab)

Prime Time (prime number infinitude), G. A. Galperin, Jan/Feb99, p10 (Feature)

A Princess of Mathematics (excerpt from autobiography of Sofya Kovalevskaya), Yuly Danilov, Jan/Feb94, p37 (Anthology)

Principles of Vortex Theory (inside the hydronamics of Helmholtz), N. Zhukovsky, Mar/Apr00, p26 (Feature)

The Problem Book of Anania of Shirak (ancient Armenian mathematics), Yuly Danilov, Mar/Apr93, p42 (Looking Back)

The Problem Book of History (mathematical approach to the past), Yuly Danilov, Sep/Oct93, p47 (Looking Back)

The Problem of Eight Points (intersecting lines), N. B. Vasiliev, Jan/Feb99, p25 (At the Blackboard)

Problem Racing (formulating math problems out of everyday experiences), Gary Sherman, Mar/Apr91, p45 (In Your Head)

Problems Beget Problems (follow-up on previously published problems), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct95, p40 (Math Investigations)

Problems Teach Us How to Think (as Euler said, “My pencil is sometimes more clever than my head”), V. Proizvolov, Jan/Feb01, p42 (Problem Primer)

Programming Challenges (problems from the 1994 IOI), Jan/Feb95, p49 (Happenings)

Ptolemy’s Trigonometry (proving and using his theorem), V. Zatakavai, jan/Feb01, p40 (Looking Back)

Q


The Quadratic (something old, something new), Vladimir Boltyansky, Sep/Oct95, p45 (At the Blackboard)

The Quadratic Trinomial (combining algebraic and geometric reasoning), A. Bolibruch, V. Uroev, and M. Shabunin, May/Jun00, p36 (At the Blackboard)

Quantum in Outer Space and the Inner Space of Art (International Space Year and Kvant art), Bill G. Aldridge, May90, p3 (Publisher’s Page)

The Quantum Nature of Light (visible proof of quanta), D. Sviridov and R. Sviridova, Nov/Dec98, p28 (Looking Back)

Quaternions (simple operations with complex numbers), A. Mishchenko and Y. Solovyov, Sep/Oct00, p4 (Feature)

Queens on a Cylinder (cylindrical and toroidal chess [see “Torangles and Torboards,” Mar/Apr94]), Alexey Tolpygo, May/Jun96, p38 (Follow-up)

Questioning Answers (in every ending is a beginning), Barry Mazur, Jan/Feb97, p4 (Feature)

A Question of Complexity (and the need to simplify in solving physics problems), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec99, p32 (Physics Contest)

R


Raising the Boats or Lowering the Water (misuse of the Corel draw x7 crack Science Education Standards), Bill G. Aldridge, May/Jun95, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Ramanujan the Phenomenon (India’s inspired mathematician), S. G. Gindikin, Mar/Apr98, p4 (Feature)

Randomly Seeking Cipollino (introduction to random walk), S. Sobolev, Jul/Aug93, p20 (Feature)

Reaching Back (extending a helping hand), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec91, p5 (Publisher’s Page)

Rearranging Sums (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb91, p18 (Contest)

Reflection and Refraction (a look at optics), Sep/Oct91, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Relativistic Conservation Laws (special relativity is no excuse not to obey conservation laws), Larry D. Kirkpatrick and Arthur Eisenkraft, Nov/Dec00, p30 (Physics Contest)

Relativity of Motion (frames of reference), A. I. Chernoutsan, Mar/Apr99, p44 (At the Blackboard)

Remarkable Geometric Formulas (algebraic relations), I. F. Sharygin, Mar/Apr99, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Remarkable Limits (generated by classical means), M. Crane and A. Nudelman, Jul/Aug97, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Repartitioning the World (population and the powers of two), V. Arnold, Jan/Feb00, p34 (Digit Demographics)

Resistance in the Multidimensional Cube (a physical application of a math concept), F. Nedemeyer and Y. Smorodinsky, Sep/Oct96, p12 (Feature)

Restricted Distances (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb92, p31 (Math Investigations)

Returning to a Former State (Rubik’s Cube and periodicity), A. Savin, Nov/Dec99, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

Revisiting Napoleon’s Theorem (via the internet), George Berzsenyi, Jul/Aug95, p37 (Math Investigations)

Revisiting the N-cluster Problem (a classic problem from Math.Note at DEC), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb97, p47 (Math Investigations)

A Revolution Absorbed (how non-Euclidean geometry entered the mainstream), E. B. Vinberg, Jan/Feb97, p18 (Feature)

Revolutionary Teaching (the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris), Yuri Solovyov, Mar/Apr98, p26 (Looking Back)

The Riddle of the Etruscans (gold spheres on jewelry), A. S. Alexandrov, Sep/Oct91, p42 (In the Lab)

A Ride on Sierpinski’s Carpet (fractals in the mind and in nature), I. M. Sokolov, May/Jun92, p6 (Feature)

Rigidity of Convex Polyhedrons (solid solutions), N. P. Dolbilin, Sep/Oct98, p8 (Feature)

Ripples on a Cosmic Sea (graviational waves), Shane S. Larson, Mar/Apr01, p4 (Feature)

Rising Star (a problem of wave interference), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct94, p44 (Physics Contest)

Rivers, Typhoons, and Molecules (all are affected by the Coriolis force), Albert Stasenko, Jul/Aug98, p38 (At the Blackboard)

Rock ’n’ No Roll (rocking cliffs), A. Mitrofanov, Mar/Apr01, p18 (Feature)

The Rolling Cubes (solutions and records), Vladimir Dubrovsky, May/Jun94, p62 (Toy Store)

Rolling Wheels (design considerations facing the engineer), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun00, p30 (Physics Contest)

Rook versus Knight (twists in a common endgame), Yevgeny Gik, Nov/Dec90, p64 (Checkmate!)

A Rotating Capacitor (electromagnetic fields and motion), A. Stasenko, May/Jun99, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Row, Row, Row Your Boat (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb93, p42 (Physics Contest)

A Royal Problem (marital tension on a chessboard), Martin Gardner and Andy Liu, Jul/Aug93, p30 (Checkmate!)

Rubik Art (monumental designs built from the classic cube), May/Jun97, p31 (Toy Store)

Russian Bazaar (economic hard times), Bill G. Aldridge, May/Jun92, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

S


Sally Ride (biographical sketch), Jan90, p39 (Innovators)

Satellite Aerodynamic Paradox (orbital irregularities), A. Mitrofanov, Jan/Feb99, p18 (Feature)

The Satellite Paradox (acceleration upon entering atmosphere), Y. G. Pavlenko, Mar/Apr93, p50 (At the Blackboard)

Savoring Science (piquancy of primary sources), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec93, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The School Bus and the Mud Puddles (inclusion-exclusion theory), Thomas P. Dence, Jan/Feb95, p24 (Feature)

Science and Fanaticism (reflections on public policy), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct92, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The Science of Pole Vaulting (materials and techniques), Peter Blanchonette and Mark Stewart, May/Jun01, p48 (Physical Education)

The Science of the Jump-Shot (basketball kinematics), Roman Vinokur, Jan/Feb93, p46 (At the Blackboard)

Science vs. the UFO (solving a tranformational puzzle), Will Oakley, Jan/Feb92, p84 (Toy Store)

Science with Charm (communicating the simplicity of physics), Bernard V. Khoury, Wondershare fotophire free download full version - Free Activators, p2 (Front Matter)

sciLINKS: The World’s a Click Away (techy textbooks), Gerald F. Wheeler, Sep/Oct98, p2 (Front Matter)

Scores and SNO in Sudbury (report on the 1997 International Physics Olympiad), Nov/Dec97, p44 (Happenings)

Sea Sounds (underwater refraction of sound waves), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr96, p34 (Physics Contest)

Sea Waves (describing wave motion), L. A. Ostrovsky, Nov/Dec98, p20 (Feature)

The Secret of the Venerable Cooper (Johannes Kepler and mysterious barrels), M. B. Balk, May90, p36 (Looking Back)

Seeing is Believing (visual proofs of the Pythagorean theorem), Daniel J. Davidson and Louis H. Kauffman, Jul/Aug97, p24 (Feature)

Selecting the Best Alternative (mathematical programming and problems of management), V. Gutenmakher and Zh. Rabbot, Nov/Dec99, p36 (At the Blackboard)

Self-propelled Sprinkler Systems (an attempt at applying Segner’s wheel), A. Stasenko, May/Jun01, p40 (In the Open Air)

Self-similar Mosaics (when the whole is the sum of its parts), N. Dolbilin, Jul/Aug00, p4 (Feature)

Shady Computations (a paradox at the boundary of dark and light), Chauncey W. Bowers, Nov/Dec96, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Shake, Rattle, and Roll (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May/Jun92, p40 (Physics Contest)

Shall We Light a Fire in the Fireplace? (an equation that seems to say: “Don’t bother”), Victor Lange, Jan/Feb96, p40 (At the Blackboard)

Shape Numbers (exploring a Fermat hypothesis), A. Savin, Sep/Oct00, p14 (Feature)

Shapes and Sizes (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Nov/Dec 90, p34 (Contest)

Sharing a Point (a handy method for a common geometric challenge), I. Sharygin, Jul/Aug00, p35 (At the Blackboard)

Shortest Networks (Jacob Steiner’s famous problem), E. Abakumov, O. Izhboldin, L. Kurlyandchik, and N. Netsvetayev, May/Jun93, p4 (Feature)

Shortest Path (Edsger Kijkstra and his algorithm), Don Piele, May/Jun00, p54 (Informatics)

Short Takes (jokes, cartoons), Mar/Apr91, p11 (Quantum Smiles)

The Short, Turbulent Life of Evariste Galois (a revolutionary in politics and math), Y. P. Solovyov, Nov/Dec91, p42 (Looking Back)

Shouting into the Wind (quantifying how sounds fade on windy days), G. Kotkin, Nov/Dec00, p40 (In the Open Air)

Signals, Graphs, and Kings on a Torus (ensuring error-free communication), A. Futer, Nov/Dec95, p12 (Feature)

A Simple Capacity for Heat (specific heat and molecular motion), Valeryan Edelman, Nov/Dec93, p22 (Feature)

The Simplicity of Mathematics (complications of life, Stone Age math), Jan/Feb91, p48 (Quantum Smiles)

The Sines and Cosines You Do and Don’t Know (survey with linguistic digressions), Nov/Dec93, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Sink or Swim (whales and buoyancy), N. Rodina, May/Jun00, p34 (In the Open Air)

Sir Isaac Newton (poem), David Arns, p14, Mar/Apr98

Six Challenging Dissection Tasks (and the birth of “high-phi”), Martin Gardner, May/Jun94, p26 (Mathematical Surprises)

Sky (poem), David Arns, Mar/Apr99, p54

Slinking Around (springy physics), Diar Chokin, Nov/Dec92, p64 (Toy Store)

Slipping Silage (how to calculate the amount of stolen hay), Dr. Mu, May/Jun97, p63 (Cowculations)

Smale’s Horseshoe (a venture in symbolic dynamics), Yuly Ilyashenko and Anna Kotova, May/Jun95, p12 (Feature)

Smoky Mountain (why the air is warmer on the leeward side), Ivan Vorobyov, Nov/Dec95, p38 (At the Blackboard)

A Snail That Moves Like Light (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct91, p28 (Physics Contest)

Solar Calculator (accurate thinking about precision), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct96, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Solving for the Slalom (understand the forces and it’s all downhill from there), A. Abrikosov, Nov/Dec99, p20 (Feature)

Some Mathematical Magic (“magic squares” and a magic tesseract), John Conway, Mar/Apr91, p28 (Mathematical Surprises)

Some Things Never Change (problem solving with invariants), Yury Ionin and Lev Kurlyandchik, Sep/Oct93, p34 (Feature)

Songs That Shatter and Winds That Howl (sound thinking), Jan/Feb94, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Sound Power (intense acoustic waves), O. V. Rudenko and V. O. Cherkezyan, Sep/Oct98, p26 (Feature)

Sources, Sinks, and Gaussian Spheres (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jul/Aug92, p24 (Physics Contest)

So What’s the Joke? (the damage done by a computer virus), Bill G. Aldridge, Jan/Feb96, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

So What’s the Point? (replacing algebra with geometry in vector analysis), Gary Haardeng-Pedersen, Mar/Apr96, p48 (At the Blackboard)

So, What’s Wrong? (debunking problematic solutions), I. F. Sharygin, Jul/Aug98, p34 (Feature)

Space Physics: A Voyage of Adventure (near-Earth phenomena), M. Frank Ireton, Sue Cox Kauffman, Ron Morse, and Mark Pesses, Nov/Dec92, p40 (Poster)

Spinning Gold from Straw (how two secrets can add up to one certainty), S. Artyomov, Y. Gimatov, and V. Fyodorov, Jul/Aug96, p20 (Feature)

Spinning in a Jet Stream (Bernoulli, Magnus, and a vacuum cleaner), Stanislav Kuzmin, Sep/Oct94, p49 (In the Lab)

Split Image (behavior of light in a broken lens), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct95, p36 (Physics Contest)

Sportin’ Life (physics of free throws and field goals), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb99, p30 (Physics Contest)

Square or not Square? (recognizing which numbers can’t be perfect squares), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, Jul/Aug99, p49 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

Squaring the Hyperbola (a different approach to logarithms and exponents), Andrey Yegorov, Mar/Apr97, p26 (Feature)

Squeaky Doors, Squealing Tires, and Singing Violins (dry friction), I. Slobodetsky, Nov/Dec92, p46 (In the Lab)

A Star is Born (gravity backs a stellar production), V. Surdin, Mar/Apr00, p12 (Feature)

The Steiner–Lehmus Theorem (addressing angle bisectors), I. F. Sharygin, Nov/Dec98, p26 (At the Blackboard)

Stirring Up Bubbles (vapor cones and vortices in a boiling liquid), T. Polyakova, V. Zablotsky, and O. Tsyganenko, Mar/Apr97, p52 (In the Lab)

The Stomachion (Archimedean game), Yuly Danilov, Jan/Feb93, p64 (Toy Store)

Stop on Red, Go on Green … (what to do on yellow?), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb94, p34 (Physics Contest)

The Story of a Dewdrop (surface shape and phase equilibrium), A. A. Abrikosov, Sep/Oct92, p34 (Feature)

A Strange Helium 14 music manager - Free Activators and a Strange General (psychology and numerical avalanches), Igor Akulich, May/Jun94, p16 (Feature)

Stretching Exercise (solutions to challenging geometry problems), Donald Barry, Jul/Aug01, p12 (Feature)

Strips on a Board (close packing in two dimensions), Boris Kotlyar, Nov/Dec94, p63 (Toy Store)

Strolling to Chebyshev’s Theorem (problems in honor of the Chebyshev centennial), Victor Ufnarovsky, Nov/Dec94, p4 (Feature)

Student Inventors Show Their Stuff (Duracell/NSTA Scholarship Competition winners), May/Jun95, p52 (Happenings)

Suds Studies (soap films and bubbles), P. Kanaev, Jul/Aug98, p47 (In the Lab)

Suggestive Tilings (new material, old topics revisited), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jul/Aug94, p36 (Follow-up)

A Summer Festival of Puzzlers (twelve problems from twelve countries), Jul/Aug93, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Summer Study in New York and Tartu, Maryland and Moscow (Science and Mathematics International Institutes), May90, p54 (Happenings)

Summertime, and the Choosin’ Ain’t Easy (ice cream counting problem), Kurt Kreith, Jul/Aug92, p28 (At the Blackboard)

Summing Up (curiosities of single-digit addition), Mark Lucianovic, Jul/Aug92, p51 (Student Corner)

The Sum of Minima and the Minima of Sums (a general method for proving many well-known inequalities), R. Alekseyev and L. Kurlyandchik, Jan/Feb01, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Superconducting Magnet (how its superconducting switch works), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec94, p36 (Physics Contest)

The Superfluidity of Helium II (loss of viscosity at a low temperature), Alexander Andreyev, Jan90, p34 (Feature)

Superheated by Equations (mathematics of heat exchange), Dmitry Fomin, Jul/Aug93, p4 (Feature)

Superprime Beef (superprimes and repusprimes), Dr. Mu, Jan/Feb97, p55 (Cowculations)

The Superproblem of Space Flight (origins of Tsiolkovsky formula), Albert Stasenko, Jul/Aug94, p20 (Feature)

Surfing the Electromagnetic Spectrum (an array of questions and facts), Jan/Feb95, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Surprises of Conversion (proving the converse of theorems), I. Kushnir, Mar/Apr96, p38 (Sticking Points)

Surprises of the Cubic Formula (an equation of little use and much significance), Dmitry Fuchs and Irene Klumova, May/Jun96, p16 (Feature)

Suspending Belief (calculating a bridge’s curve), Y. S. Petrov, Jul/Aug93, p28 (At the Blackboard)

Swinging from Star to Star (accelerating a spacecraft into the cosmos), Vladimir Surdin, Mar/Apr97, p4 (Feature)

Swinging Techniques (parametric resonance), Alexey Chernoutsan, May/Jun93, p64 (Toy Store)

Swords into Plowshares (Russian wingships and California fires), Bill G. Aldridge, Jan/Feb94, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Symmetry in Algebra (getting started with group theory), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, Mar/Apr98, p43 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

Symmetry, Part II (polynomial equations and their roots), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, May/Jun98, p34 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

Symmetry in Algebra, Part III (using the factor theorem), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, Jul/Aug98, p41 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

The Symmetry of Chance (introduction to geometric probability), Nikolay Vasilyev, May/Jun93, p22 (Feature)

Symmetry on the Chessboard (accidental and intentional symmetry), Yevgeny Gik, May90, p64 (Checkmate!)

T


Tackling Twisted Hoops (invariants and untangling challenges), S. Matveyev, Nov/Dec00, p8 (Feature)

Tactile Microscopes (sensing techniques), A. Volodin, Jan/Feb93, p36 (Feature)

Taking Advantage (hard times for Russian science), Bill G. Aldridge, Jan/Feb93, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Taking a Flying Leap (Hooke’s law on a South Seas island), A. A. Dozorov, Sep/Oct90, p10 (At the Blackboard)

Taking on Triangles (recounting a solution, with fruitful “side trips”), A. Kanel and A. Kovaldzhi, Mar/Apr01, p10 (Feature)

Taking the Earth’s Temperature (how hot is the Earth’s core?), Alexey Byalko, Jan/Feb95, p4 (Feature)

A Tale of One City (Tournament of Towns report), Andy Liu, May/Jun94, p50 (Happenings)

The Talking Wave of the Future (fiber optics), Yury Nosov, Nov/Dec92, p12 (Feature)

A Talk with Professor I. M. Gelfand (reminiscences of a mathematical boyhood), recorded by V. S. Retakh and A. B. Sosinsky, Jan/Feb91, p20 (Feature)

Tartu in the Summer of ’91 (math program for American and Soviet students), Mark Saul, Mar/Apr92, p56 (Happenings)

A Tell-tale Trail and a Chemical Clock (two experiments with alternating current), N. Paravyan, Sep/Oct95, p42 (In the Lab)

Temperature, Heat, and Thermometers (overview of temperature and its measurement), A. Kikoyin, May90, p16 (Feature)

Thanks for Your Support! (end-of-year ruminations), Bill G. Aldridge, Mar/Apr91,p3 (Publisher’s Page)

The Theorem of Menelaus (the secant line), B. Orach, May/Jun01, p44 (At the Blackboard)

The Thermodynamic Universe (does time have a beginning and an end?), I. D. Novikov, Mar/Apr98, p10 (Feature)

Think Fast! (order-of-magnitude estimates in physics), G. V. Meledin, Mar/Apr91, p36 (Feature)

Think Twice, Code Once (cutting a tree trunk into boards), Dr. Mu, May/Jun99, p55 (Cowculations)

This Just In … (exchange of scientific views in the daily press), Jan/Feb91, p48 (Quantum Smiles)

Thoroughly Modern Diophantus (the arithmetic of elliptic curver), Y. Solovyov, Sep/Oct99, p10 (Feature)

The Three Chords Theorem (new version of the first part of Ptolemy’s theorem), Shikong Le and Lioukan Chen, Jul/Aug01, p48 (At the Blackboard)

Three Golds and Two Silvers in Italy (report on the XXX International Physics Olympiad), Mary Mogge and Leaf Turner, Nov/Dec99, p52 (Happenings)

Three Metaphysical Tales (profound thoughts of lines, light, and planets), A. Filonov, Mar/Apr94, p28 (Quantum Smiles)

Three Paths to Mt. Fermat-Euler (primes and squares), Vladimir Tikhomirov, May/Jun94, p4 (Feature)

Three Physicists and One Log (which physicist bears the brunt?), Helium 14 music manager - Free Activators Vinokur, Mar/Apr97, p48 (At the Blackboard)

Thrills by Design (physics in the amusement park), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct93, p38 (Physics Contest)

Through a Glass Brightly (remarkable properties of helium 14 music manager - Free Activators glass), B. Fabrikant, Sep/Oct90, p34 (In the Lab)

Through the Decimal Point (quadratics and 10-adic numbers), A. B. Zhiglevich and N. N. Petrov, Jul/Aug94, p16 (Feature)

Throwing the Book at Them (critique of textbooks), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec94, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Tied into Knot Theory (the basics of mathematical knots), O. Viro, May/Jun98, p16 (Feature)

Time to Move On … (celebrating Quantum’s 12 years), Arthur Eisenkraft, Jul/Aug01, p3 (Front Matter)

The Tip of the Iceberg (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct92, p24 (Physics Contest)

To Calculate or Guess—You Decide! (the virtues of guessing), I. Akulich, Mar/Apr91, p47 (In Your Head)

To Err Is Human (correction is the key), Bill G. Aldridge, Nov/Dec92, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

To Flexland with Mr. Flexman (two flexible toys), Alexey Panov, Mar/Apr92, p64 (Toy Store)

Tomahawk Throwing Made Easy (physics of getting the hatchet to stick), V. A. Davydov, Nov/Dec90, p4 (Feature)

A Topless Roller Coaster (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec92, p28 (Physics Contest)

Topology and the Lay of the Land (mathematical topography), Mikhail Shubin, Sep/Oct92, p4 (Feature)

Topsy-turvy Pyramids (rolling-block puzzles), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Sep/Oct93, p63 (Toy Store)

Torangles and Torboards (toroidal constructions), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Mar/Apr94, p63 (Toy Store)

The Torch is Passed (introducing NSTA’s new Executive Director), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct95, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

Tori, Tori, Tori! (bagels and beyond), Mar/Apr94, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Toroidal Currency (money with a twist), Martin Gardner, Sep/Oct94, p52 (Mathematical Surprises)

The Tournament of Towns (international math competition), Nikolay Konstantinov, Jan90, p50 (Happenings)

The Toy that Drove the Universe (critique of the “anthropic principle”), Jef Raskin, Nov/Dec99, p49

Trees Worthy of Paul Bunyan (physics and tree growth), Anatoly Mineyev, Jan/Feb94, p4 (Feature)

Triad and True (puzzles based on invariants), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jan/Feb95, p62 (Toy Store)

Triangles of Differences (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, May/Jun92, p30 (Math Investigations)

Triangles of Sums (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Jul/Aug92, p53 (Math Investigations)

Triangles with the Right Stuff (a special case of right triangles), L. D. Kurlyandchik, Jul/Aug98, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Triangular Surgery (problems in which polygons are sliced into triangles), O. Izhboldin and L. Kurlyandchik, Nov/Dec00, p34 (At the Blackboard)

Tricky Rearrangements (more rolling-block puzzles), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Nov/Dec93, p63 (Toy Store)

A Trio of Topics (center of mass, electricity in metals, time travel) A. I. Chernoutsan and Andrey Varlamov, Sep/Oct92, p47 (At the Blackboard)

True on the Face of It Passper WinSenior Registration Code refutation of Zeno’s paradox), Gordon Moyer, Jul/Aug95, p16 (Feature)

Tunnel Trouble (dropping an apple in a tunnel through the Earth), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb00, p32 (Physics Contest)

Turning Algebraic Identities into Geometric Inequalities (a use for complex numbers), Zalman Skopets, Sep/Oct94, p41 (At the Blackboard)

Turning the Incredible into the Obvious (non-Euclidean geometry), Vladimir Boltyansky, Sep/Oct92, p18 (Feature)

Turning the Tides (understanding the attraction of the Moon), V. E. Belonuchkin, May/Jun98, p10 (Feature)

2-adic Numbers (introduction to Hensel distances), B. Becker, S. Vostokov, and Y. Ionin, Jul/Aug99, p21 (Feature)

Two Physics Tricks (reluctant water becomes a fountain), V. Mayer and E. Mamayeva, Mar/Apr91, p35 (In the Lab)

Tycho, Lord of Uraniborg (a portrait of the great astronomer Tycho Brahe), J. D. Haines, Sep/Oct00, p25 (Looking Back)

U


Unidentical Twins (using conjugate numbers to tame irrationalitites), V. N. Vaguten, Nov/Dec97, p20 (Feature)

Uninscribable Polyhedrons? (Proving the Steinitz theorem), E. Andreev, May/Jun01, p18 (Feature)

The Universe Discovered (from contemplation to calculation), Yury Solovyov, May/Jun92, p12 (Feature)

A Universe of Questions (what we know about the universe), Yakov Zeldovich, Jan/Feb92, p6 (Feature)

The Unlimited Appeal of The Limits to Growth (it sparked the debate on “sustainable” economies), Tim Weber, Sep/Oct97, p2 (Front Matter)

An Unsinkable Disk (hands-on hydraulics), A. Luzin, Sep/Oct99, p42 (In the Lab)

Up the Down Incline (gravity defied? or obeyed unusually?), Alexander Mitrofanov, Mar/Apr96, p44 (In the Lab)

Up, Up, and Away (hot air rising), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct98, p34 (Physics Contest)

The USA Computing Olympiad (report), Donald T. Piele, May/Jun93, p51 (Happenings)

The USA Mathematical Talent Search (competition without time pressure), George Berzsenyi, Sep/Oct90, p56 (Happenings)

Using Cents to Sense Surface Tension (experiments with pennies and fluids), Mary E. Stokes helium 14 music manager - Free Activators Henry D. Schreiber, Mar/Apr01, p42 (In the Lab)

US Physics Team Places Third in Beijing (XXV International Physics Olympiad), Nov/Dec94, p50 (Happenings)

US Team Places Second at IMO (report), Cecil Rousseau and Daniel Ullman, Jan/Feb93, p51 (Happenings)

US Wins Gold at the International Physics Olympiad (report), Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec92, p51 (Happenings)

V


Vacuum (making something out of nothing), A. Semenov, Jul/Aug99, p12 (Feature)

Van der Waals and his Equation (making an ideal gas real), B. Yavelov, Nov/Dec97, p36 (Looking Back)

Van der Waerden’s Pathological Function (examining a “miserable sore”), B. Martynov, Jul/Aug98, p12 (Feature)

Van Rooman’s Challenge (solving a baffling equation), Yury Solovyov, Jan90, p42 (Looking Back)

Variations on a Theme (the Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean inequality), Mark Saul and Titu Andreescu, Foxit PhantomPDF Activation key, p37 (Gradus ad Parnassum)

Vavilov’s Paradox (apparent violation of energy conservation law), V. A. Fabrikant, Jul/Aug92, p49 (At the Blackboard)

A Venusian Mystery (the riddle of her rotation), Vladimir Surdin, Jul/Aug96, p4 (Feature)

The View from the Masthead (new subtitle, departure, clarification), Bill G. Aldridge, Sep/Oct93, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The View through a Bamboo Screen (birth of the modulation collimator), Minoru Oda, Jan/Feb92, p34 (Feature)

Vikings and Voltmeters (report on the 1996 International Physics Olympiad), Dwight E. Neuenschwander, Sep/Oct96, p52 (Happenings)

A Viscous River Runs Through It (the engine-saving properties of motor oil), Henry D. Schreiber, Nov/Dec95, p42 (In the Lab)

Visionary Science (atmospheric anomalies), V. Novoseltsev, May/Jun98, p21 (Feature)

Volta, Oersted, and Faraday (titans of electricity), A. Vasilyev, Jul/Aug01, p34 (Looking Back)

Volumes without Integrals (the Cavalieri principle), I. F. Sharygin, Mar/Apr97, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

W


Wacky Pyramids (cubic trisection), Yakov Smorodinsky, Mar/Apr93, p64 (Toy Store)

Wake Up! (brainteasers for vacationers), Anatoly Savin, Jul/Aug92, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

Walker in a Winter Wonderland (musings inspired by The Flying Circus of Physics), Alexander Borovoy, May90, p52 (In the Lab)

Walking on Water (physics of unusual modes of locomotion), K. Bogdanov, Jan/Feb91, p36 (Feature)

A Walk on the Sword’s Edge (literally—is it possible?), V. Meshcheryakov, Jan/Feb96, p10 (Feature)

Warp Speed (traveling faster than light), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry Kirkpatrick, Nov/Dec98, p32 (Physics Contest)

The “Water Worm” (the Archimedean cleanmypc crack 2019 - Activators Patch, M. Golovey, Jan/Feb97, p40 (In the Lab)

A Watery View and Waterloo (waves, mirages, and the sounds of battle), A. Stasenko, Mar/Apr00, p48 (In the Open Air)

Wave Interference (light diffractin and interference patterns), L. Bakanina, Jul/Aug01, p42 (At the Blackboard)

The Wave Mechanics of Erwin Schrödinger (an aspect of quantum theory), A. Vasilyev, May/Jun01, p36 (Looking Back)

Wave on a Car Tire (limitations to speed), L. Grodko, Nov/Dec98, p10 (Feature)

Waves Beneath the Waves (ocean acoustics), L. Brekhovskikh and V. Kurtepov, Jan/Feb98, p16 (Feature)

Wave Watching (investigation of a fundamental phenomenon), L. Aslamazov and I. Kikoyin, Jan/Feb91, p12 (Feature)

Weighing an Astronaut (weight-watching while weightless), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Mar/Apr95, p36 (Physics Contest)

Weightlessness in a Car? (road-trip physics), Sergei Pikin, Jul/Aug98, p31 (At the Blackboard)

Weightlessness in a Magic Box (some assembly required), A. Dozorov, May/Jun99, p41 (In the Lab)

Welcome to International Space Year! (introduction to special ISY issue of Quantum), L. A. Fisk, Jan/Feb92, p2 (Guest Page)

Welcome to Quantum! (birth of Quantum), Bill G. Aldridge, Jan90, p5 (Publisher’s Page)

What a Commotion! (molecular motion), May90, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

What Did the Conductor Say? (mathematical induction), Mikhail Gerver, Jul/Aug92, p38 (Feature)

What Goes Up … (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb92, p32 (Physics Contest)

What Happens at the Boundary (surface tension, surface films, and other interesting phenomena), A. Borovoy and Y. Klimov, Jan/Feb01, p46 (In the Lab)

What Harmony Means (exploration of harmonic mean), Vladimir Dubrovsky and Anatoly Savin, Jan/Feb93, pls graph 3.0 download free - Free Activators (Kaleidoscope)

What I Learned in Quantum Land (poem), David Arns, Jan/Feb98, p52 (Musings)

What is Elegance? (what mathematicians say), Julia Angwin, Jan/Feb95, p34 (Ruminations)

What is Thought? (and where does it happen?), V. Meshcheryakov, May/Jun01, p22 (Feature)

What Little Stars Do (physics of twinkling), Pavel Bliokh, Mar/Apr94, p22 (Feature)

What’s New in the Solar System? (applying old laws of orbital motion), Nov/Dec90, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

What’s That You See? (misperception of light), B. M. Bolotovsky, Mar/Apr93, p4 (Feature)

What’s the “Best” Answer? (it’s not just a matter of getting the right answer), Boris Kordemsky, Jul/Aug96, p28 (Kaleidoscope)

What the Seesaw Taught (physics challenge), Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Jan/Feb91, p19 (Contest)

What You Add is What You Take (going backward to go forward), Andrey Yegorov, Nov/Dec94, p40 (At the Blackboard)

When a Body Meets a Body (Giant Impact theory of the Moon’s formation), A. G. W. Cameron, Jan/Feb95, p16 (Feature)

When Days Are Months (physics helium 14 music manager - Free Activators, Arthur Eisenkraft and Larry D. Kirkpatrick, May90, p34 (Contest)

When Things Fall Apart (exercises in stability), Boris Korsunsky, May/Jun99, p4 (Feature)

When Trojans and Greeks Collide (the challenge of multibody systems), I. Vorobyov, Sep/Oct99, p16 (Feature)

Where Do Problems Come From? (the art of problem composition), I. Sharygin, Jan/Feb01, p18 (Feature)

Where is Last Year's Winter? (a problem of heat exchange), A. Stasenko, May/Jun01, p30 (In the Lab)

While the Water Evaporates … (time enough to think about the rate of the process), Mikhail Anfimov and Alexey Chernoutsan, Jul/Aug96, p25 (At the Blackboard)

Whirlwinds over the Runway (vortices generated by large jet planes), Albert Stasenko, Jul/Aug97, p42 (At the Blackboard)

Whistling in Space (electromagnetic signals from outer space), Pavel Bliokh, Mar/Apr97, p18 (Feature)

Who Needs a Lofty Tower? (the Earth’s rotation adds a twist to certain experiments), A. Stasenko, May/Jun00, p39 (At the Blackboard)

Who Owns Roman Numerals? (the history and practice of I’s, V’s, X’s …), Steven Schwartzman, Jan/Feb96, p4 (Feature)

Why Are the Cheese Holes Round? (transmission of pressure), Sergey Krotov, Nov/Dec90, p46 (In Your Head)

Why Doesn’t the Sack Slide? (impulsive sliding friction), Alexey Chernoutsan, May/Jun97, p50 (In the Lab)

Why Don’t Planes Fly with Cats and Dogs? (flight dynamics), S. K. Betyaev, Sep/Oct98, p14 (Feature)

Why Is a Burnt Match Bent? (playing with fire), V. Milman, Nov/Dec98, p40 (In the Lab)

Why Is the Sky Blue? (the physics behind the sky’s colors), Alexander Buzdin and Sergei Krotov, Mar/Apr98, p47 (In the Open Air)

Why Study Mathematics? (putting practicality in its place), Vladimir Arnold, Sep/Oct94, p24 (Feature)

Why Won’t Weeble Wobbly Go to Bed? (the physics of a “light-headed” toy), L. Borovinsky, May/Jun96, p64 (Toy Store)

The Wind in the Quicksilver (backward ion flow in mercury amalgams), Ivan Vorobyov, Jan/Feb96, p20 (Feature)

Winning Strategies (solutions to previous Kaleidoscope), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Sep/Oct95, p61 (Toy Store)

Wobbling Nuclear Drops (macrolaws in microworlds), Yuly Bruk, Maxim Zelnikov, and Albert Stasenko, Jan/Feb97, p12 (Feature)

The Wolf, the Baron, and Isaac Newton (action and reaction and more), V. A. Fabrikant, Nov/Dec91, p24 (Smiles)

The Wonderland of Poincaria (Lobachevsky bicentenary), Simon Gindikin, Nov/Dec92, p20 (Feature)

Word and Image (hints on how to read Quantum), Bill G. Aldridge, Mar/Apr95, p2 (Publisher’s Page)

The World3 Model (a graphic representation of a system dynamics model), Sep/Oct97, p32 (Kaleidoscope)

The World According to Malthus and Volterra (mathematical theory of the struggle for existence), Constantine Bogdanov, Jul/Aug92, p18 (Feature)

World-class Physics in Colonial Williamsburg (IPO report), Larry D. Kirkpatrick, Sep/Oct93, p51 (Happenings)

The World in a Bubble (sustainability in closed ecological systems), Joshua L. Tosteson, Sep/Oct97, p20 (Feature)

The World Puzzle Championship (report and sample puzzles), Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jul/Aug96, p55 (Toy Store)

The Worm Problem of Leo Moser—Part I (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Jan/Feb93, p41 (Math Investigations)

The Worm Problem of Leo Moser—Part II (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, Mar/Apr93, p16 (Math Investigations)

The Worm Problem of Leo Moser—Part III (math challenge), George Berzsenyi, May/Jun93, p21 (Math Investigations)

A Wrinkle in Reality (excerpt from Lobachevsky’s New Elements of Geometry), Yuly Danilov, Jul/Aug92, p44 (Anthology)

The WRITE Stuff (how the USA 2000 Informatics Team was formed), Don Piele, Sep/Oct00, p53 (Informatics)


Y

Young US Mathematicians Excel in Bombay (report on the 1996 International Mathematical Olympiad), Sep/Oct96, p55 (Happenings)

Источник: https://www.nsta.org/quantum-magazine-math-and-science

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  • You can also do tagging with this software.
  • It comes with different inbuilt tag editors.
  • This software automatically renames the files.
  • You can also convert the files into other formats.
  • The interface of the software is so modern and Intuitive.
  • You can play music via playlists.
  • You can also do the visualization plug-in.
  • It provides you with an optimal experience.
  • This software comes with its own helium script engine.
  • You can also do your task in the form of batches.
  • It provides you with ultimate scaling for all types of collections.
  • You can manage your albums and data with this software.
  • You can also download the desired pictures and other data with this software.
  • You can automate and customize the data and functions according to you.
  • Helium Music Manager Full Crack comes with both a dark and light theme for the comfort of the user.
  • It comes with a powerful search bar. That can quickly detect the tag and provides the results.

Whats New In Helium Music Manager Premium 15.0.17747.0 Beta 3?

In the latest version of Helium Music Manager Premium Cracked Version,

  • All the bugs are fixed.
  • Advanced searches.
  • It now acts as a remote control app.
  • More advanced features are added to it.
  • The interface of the software is now improved.
  • Now it comes with ultimate separate user accounts.
  • It also comes with multiple database support system.
  • Also, it comes with new dynamic statistics.
  • It has a new client-server multi-user interface.
  • Also, it comes with first-class technical support
Helium Music Manager Premium Crack

Advantages:

  • It is music managing software.
  • This is feature-loaded software.
  • Also, it comes with a spreadsheet interface.
  • It comes with fast tagging capability.
  • It also supports the Auto-DJ mode.
  • Also, it acts as a converter.
  • The tag editor support 60 individual fields.
  • That is completely configurable.
  • It can also rip all-optical devices.
  • You can also manage and organize all your collections.
  • It can merge different files into one and split one file into many others.
  • It can convert audio files into other formats very easily and quickly.
  • This software also comes with a 10-band equalizer.

FAQ’s

Why is Helium Music Manager better than others?

Helium Music Manager Premium Cracked Latest is the top-rated music managing software in the market. It comes with the features which any other software does not contain. Also, it is an all in one solution for the professionals. It is a CD ripper, file splitter, analyzer, duplicator, etc. Also, it performs all these tasks at a time. It also has a dark theme. It comes with up to 6 browsing views and subviews.

Helium Music Manager Premium Keys can download the content in mass volume albums. Many thumbnail sizes are available in this software. It has both release view mode and artist view mode. This software has high precision position bars. It can also repair your damage your audio files. This software comes with the capability of searching and locating different files in an efficient order. There are many more features in this. That’s why it is better than others in the market.

Pros:Cons:
It is easy to use.Sometimes the converting create some issue.
It’s interface is user friendly.
It fulfill all the needs of modern age.
It has a lot of features.

Download Helium Music Manager Premium Serial Key 2021

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  • Keep Sharing with your friends!!!

Conclusion:

To conclude my recommendations I must say that Helium Music Manager Premium Crack is a complete package for music lovers. They can edit and organize the whole system very easily. The user enjoys the interface of this software. It also comes with customer support that responds immediately.

Helium Music Free Crack can support both local and remote databases. It now supports iOS, Android, and all windows versions. You can share your created playlist with multiple users. It has multiple user support. You can also create and switch among different databases easily. This software comes with the ability to automatically tag the list or a file. I must say that it is a wonderful software.

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Helium Music Manager 14 Key Features:

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Software Details:

  • Title: Helium Music Manager 14.9 Build 16674 Premium Edition
  • Developer: Home Page
  • License: Shareware
  • Language: Multilingual
  • OS: Windows

System Requirements:

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  • Processor: Pentium IV or higher
  • RAM: 1 GB RAM (2 GB recommended)
  • Free Hard Disk Space: 200 MB or more

How to Crack?

  • Download files from the given line below.
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Helium Music Manager Premium Full Crack Features:

  • You can do cataloging with this software.
  • It can support multiple database types.
  • Also, it can manage small files to large files.
  • You can also do tagging with this software.
  • It comes with different inbuilt tag editors.
  • This software automatically renames the files.
  • You can also convert the files into other formats.
  • The interface of the software is so modern and Intuitive.
  • You can play music via playlists.
  • You can also do the visualization plug-in.
  • It provides you with an optimal experience.
  • This software comes with its own helium script engine.
  • You can also do your task in the form of batches.
  • It provides you with ultimate scaling for all types of collections.
  • You can manage your albums and data with this software.
  • You can also download the desired pictures and other data with this software.
  • You can automate and customize the data and functions according to you.
  • Helium Music Manager Full Crack comes with both a dark and light theme for the comfort of the user.
  • It comes with a powerful search bar. That can quickly detect the tag and provides the results.

Whats New In Helium Music Manager Premium 15.0.17747.0 Beta 3?

In the latest version of Helium Music Manager Premium Cracked Version,

  • All the bugs are fixed.
  • Advanced searches.
  • It now acts as a remote control app.
  • More advanced features are added to it.
  • The interface of the software is now improved.
  • Now it comes with ultimate separate user accounts.
  • It also comes with multiple database support system.
  • Also, it comes with new dynamic statistics.
  • It has a new client-server multi-user interface.
  • Also, it comes with first-class technical support
Helium Music Manager Premium Crack

Advantages:

  • It is music managing software.
  • This is feature-loaded software.
  • Also, it comes with a spreadsheet interface.
  • It comes with fast tagging capability.
  • It also supports the Auto-DJ mode.
  • Also, it acts as a converter.
  • The tag editor support 60 individual fields.
  • That is completely configurable.
  • It can also rip all-optical devices.
  • You can also manage and organize all your collections.
  • It can merge different files into one and split one file into many others.
  • It can convert audio files into other formats very easily and quickly.
  • This software also comes with a 10-band equalizer.

FAQ’s

Why is Helium Music Manager better than others?

Helium Music Manager Premium Cracked Latest is the top-rated music managing software in the market. It comes with the features which any other software does not contain. Also, it is an all in one solution for the professionals. It is a CD ripper, file splitter, analyzer, duplicator, etc. Also, it performs all these tasks at a time. It also has a dark theme. It comes with up to 6 browsing views and subviews.

Helium Music Manager Premium Keys can download the content in mass volume albums. Many thumbnail sizes are available in this software. It has both release view mode and artist view mode. This software has high precision position bars. It can also repair your damage your audio files. This software comes with the capability of searching and locating different files in an efficient order. There are many more features in this. That’s why it is better than others in the market.

Pros:Cons:
It is easy to use.Sometimes the converting create some issue.
It’s interface is user friendly.
It fulfill all the needs of modern age.
It has a lot of features.

Download Helium Music Manager Premium Serial Key 2021

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  • Download Helium Music Manager Crack from the download button
  • Extract the downloaded file
  • After extracting, Install It
  • Turn your computer firewall off
  • Restart your computer system
  • After restarting, copy Helium Music Manager Keygen
  • Paste it in the installation directory
  • Done…! Enjoy
  • Keep Sharing with your friends!!!

Conclusion:

To conclude my recommendations I must say that Helium Music Manager Premium Crack is a complete package for music lovers. They can edit and organize the whole system very easily. The user enjoys the interface of this software. It also comes with customer support that responds immediately.

Helium Music Free Crack can support both local and remote databases. It now supports iOS, Android, and all windows versions. You can share your created playlist with multiple users. It has multiple user support. You can also create and switch among different databases easily. This software comes with the ability to automatically tag the list or a file. I must say that it is a wonderful software.

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Helium Music Manager Premium Crack + Full Edition 2021

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Helium Music Manager Premium Crack is a music manager that can tear, tag, play, peruse, search, rename, consume and synchronize your music with a compact player. You can assume responsibility for your music assortment. Quit investing energy searching for documents on your PC or chasing through CDs, vinyl records, and tapes – rather, basically appreciate and investigate your music.

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Helium Music Manager Premium

Helium Music Manager Premium Crack For PC is a music tagger, renamer, cataloguer, program, playlist manager and report, maker. It can list, alter, and play the most widely recognized music groups (MP3, Ogg, WMA, iTunes M4A, FLAC, APE, and MPC) just as standard Audio CDs. Helium Music Manager Full Version to your Full-HD TV and reclassify music amusement Download covers for your collections. Effectively discover your collections by perusing their collection craftsmanship. It has worked in offices to rapidly discover and download collection workmanship. Also, Helium Music Manager Crack is the best mp3 device.

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Additionally, Helium Music Manager Premium Crack Windowssupports mp3, mp4, FLAC, Ogg, WMA, and more just as sound CDs, vinyl, and tapes. For a client with enormous assortments, we offer help for Microsoft SQL Server and MySQL for improved execution.

Furthermore, Add or right absent or off base meta-information utilizing the numerous instruments accessible for labeling your records. Evacuate, switch, include or duplicate label substance among documents and fields utilizing cluster activities.

Besides, Download collection pictures, dissect quality, and fix broken mp3 documents. Consequently, rename records and make custom envelope structures, convert documents to various arrangements.

Many various methods for perusing your music. Also, Collection and craftsman picture just as itemized postings. Effectively channel your substance, look for your top choices, and make playlists.

Play music, scrobble to Last.FM, stream through Shoutcast. However, Show your companions what you are playing on Windows Live Messenger. Show special visualizations and appreciate programmed playback with worked in highlights.

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  • Upgrades to Open Database exchange for SQL Server. It’s simpler to associate with a current database as you are presently ready to list the accessible databases on the chose server.
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Helium Music Manager Premium Serial Key System Requirements:
  • Operating System: Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10
  • Memory (RAM) required: 512 MB of RAM required (1 GB RAM Recommended).
  • Hard Disk Space required: 75 MB of free hard plate space required.
  • Processor: Intel Pentium 4 or later.
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Instructions:
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Helium Music Manager 14.9 Build 16671.0 Crack + Activation Key 2021

Helium Music Manager Premium Crack is a powerful track supervisor software. This software contains the ability to rip, tag, and play your song. You can also browse, rename, and synchronize your song as well. Further, a user is easily able to burn its song with a particular portable participant. The software Helium Music Manager Premium Full also contains the ability to manipulate your tune collection too. Also, you can also save your time for searching a particular tune with the help of this software. 😉😎

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You can take control of your music collection. Stop spending time looking for files on your computer or hunting through CDs, vinyl records, and tapes – instead, simply enjoy and explore your music! Helium Music Manager can replace your ripper, player, tag editor, and other audio-related software.

Music Manager Premium Serial key is a music tagger, renamer, cataloguer, browser, playlist manager, and report creator. It can catalog, edit, and play the most common music formats (MP3, Ogg, WMA, iTunes M4A, FLAC, APE, and MPC) as well as standard Audio CDs. Helium Music Manager Premium  Key 2020 makes it easy to find your favorite music by searching for criteria such as Artist, Title, Genre, Rating, etc. Avoid manual typing by downloading the artist and title information from various sources on the Internet (CDDB, Amazon, AllMusic, Discogs to mention a few). Helium supports downloading of album pictures, artist pictures, track information, artist relations, biographies, discographies, and lyrics.💕😍

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What’s Change In Helium Music Manager Newest version:

  • Ability to import external playlists.
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Helium Music Manager/Setup:

Technical Setup Details of the Software:

  • Software name: Helium Music Manager Premium Edition
  • Setup Folder Name: Helium Music Manager 14.8 Build 16499.0 Crack_Premium.rar
  • Full Setup Size:  24 MB, ( Recommended  2 GB)
  • Setup Type: Offline Installer or Full Standalone Setup
  • Compatibility: 32Bit(x86),64 Bit (x64)
  • Developed by: Imploded

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System Requirements :

  • Operating System: Windows XP/Vista/Windows 7/Windows 8/Windows 8.1/Windows 10
  • RAM: 512 MB of RAM required.
  • Hard Disk: 25 MB of free space required.
  • Processor: Intel Dual Core processor or higher

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Frequently Asked Questions

We aim to deliver orders shipped to a UK delivery address placed using our Standard Delivery service within 3 working days or within 5 working days on Standard Delivery orders shipped to a Republic of Ireland address. Please note that weekends and Bank Holidays are not classed as working days. We do not deliver on Sundays or Bank Holidays and our lead times are not guaranteed.

For UK Next Day delivery, order before 10pm Monday to Sunday. Orders placed after 10pm on any given day may get dispatched that day but are more likely to be dispatched the following working day and therefore delivered the day after. Orders placed after 10pm Friday will be delivered on Monday. Orders placed after 10pm on a Sunday will be delivered on Tuesday. We do not currently deliver on Sundays or Bank Holidays and our lead times are not guaranteed.

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Helium Music Manager Premium Key Features:

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  • Supports music for iPod and Zen
  • Ability to support a wide range of players
  • Explores the music according to the needs of a user
  • Supports different formats like mp4 and many more
  • Offers support for Microsoft SQL Server
  • Adds and corrects missing meta-data for tagging the user’s files
  • Removes and copies tags contents between files
  • Switches and adds contents between fields using batch operations
  • Ability to download the album picture and artist relations
  • Offers efficient features to analyze the quality of your music
  • Includes robust tools in its interface to repair the broken mp3 files
  • Ability to create and rename files automatically
  • Easily converts music files to different formats as well
  • Filters and searches for your favorite music album
  • Browsers your favorite music in different ways
  • Displays visual effects of the playing music
  • Contains built-in operations for filtering the contents

System Requirements:

  • Support Operating System: Windows XP/Vista/7/8/8.1/10
  • Memory (RAM) required: 512 MB of RAM required (1 GB RAM Recommended).
  • Hard Disk Space required: 75 MB of free hard disk space required.
  • Processor: Intel Pentium 4 or later.
  • Administrator rights

How To Crack?

  1. First of all, download the setup file from the given link
  2. After, you need an extractor
  3. Next, Extract your setup on the desktop
  4. Then, run the setup file
  5. Furthermore, follow instructions and allow it to finish
  6. Now, close the program and run the Latest file
  7. Finally, follow the instructions and let them be completed
  8. In the end, Done! Enjoy the software for free.
Category: MacVST PluginTags: helium music manager, helium music manager 13 review, helium music manager 14 review, Helium Music Manager 14.4 Build 16352.0 Crack, Helium Music Manager Activation Key, helium music manager alternative, helium music manager auto tag, helium music manager crack, Helium Music Manager Keygen Key, helium music manager mac, helium music manager tutorialИсточник: https://crackpur.com/helium-music-manager-premium-crack/

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4 Replies to “Helium 14 music manager - Free Activators”

  1. can we make a bootable penddrive of windows 7 using this iso file?

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